biology test 1
Terms in this set (90)
What are the 3 main types of ecosystems?
Terrestrial, Freshwater and Marine
What does terrestrial mean?
What are some examples of freshwater ecosystems?
rivers, ponds, lakes
What are some examples of marine ecosystems?
oceans and seas
How many biomes are in terrestrial ecosystems?
7 (with similar climates and organisms)
What are the 7 Terrestrial Biomes?
tropical rain forest, savanna, deserts, grasslands, dediduous forests, taiga, and tundra
Describe the tundra.
Cold and dark, arctic, permafrost, no trees, many migratory animals, lemmings and ptarmigans are year round residents, 20 cm of rain/year.
What is permafrost?
The top layer of soil that thaws and in which plants grow.
Describe the tiaga.
Coniferous forest, extends across northern Eurasia and North America, contains conifers (evergreens), has needle like leaves, bear, deer, moose, wolves, mountain lions, and sequoia.
List some examples of conifers (evergreens).
spruce, cedar, fir, pine
What is sequoia?
redwood (largest conifer)
Describe the temperate deciduous forest.
South of taiga in North America, eastern Asia, and Europe, high annual rainfall, moderate temps, well-defined seasons, trees loose leaves in winter, shows stratification, songbirds, deer, rabbits, etc.
Trees that loose their leaves in the winter.
List the 3 stratification layers (plant layers).
Canopy (broad leaf, upper layer), under story (shrubs), forest floor (herbaceous plants)
Describe the tropical rain forest.
Near equator, warm climate, a lot of rain, poor soil for agriculture, contains the greatest diversity in plants and animals, insects, monkeys, snakes, tropical birds, and animals and plants are brightly colored.
Describe the grasslands.
Mostly grass with few trees due to less rainfall, moderate climates, good for agricultural crops, grazing and burrowing animals.
What is another name for the grasslands?
Describe the savanna.
Tropical grasslands, warm climate and rainy season, antelope, zebra, lions, etc. and suffer from floods and drought.
Describe the deserts.
Low annual rainfall, strong winds, days are hot and nights are cold, Sahara Desert is without vegetation, cacti, nocturnal animals, lizards, snakes, insects, etc.
What are succulent plants?
cacti and other water storing plants
Describe aquatic biomes.
May be freshwater or saltwater, wetlands near oceans have brackish water, part of the water cycle, and often polluted by man's activites.
What is brackish water?
Mixture of fresh and salt waters
What type of lakes have layers (strata)?
deep ones where different plants and animals live
What type of animals, in the upper layers of lakes and rivers, need light?
Where is the intertidal zone in the ocean?
Along the shoreline where there is wave action. There is a lot of light there so there are many producers like starfish and sand dollars.
Where are nertic ocean zones located?
In the ocean water above the continental shelf. Coral reef found here and surrounds continents.
Where is the oceanic zone located?
Beyond the continental shelf.
What is the deepest area of the oceanic zone?
up to 7 miles (the bottom doesn't receive light so animals have adapted to darkness)
What is the deepest area of the oceanic zone called?
What areas of the oceanic zones get light (a lot of seaweed here)?
What are some microscopic organisms that float called?
Study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environments.
What are living things affected by?
nonliving and living parts of the environment
What are abiotic factors?
nonliving parts of the environment (air, temperature, moisture, light, soil)
What are biotic factors?
living organisms in the environment (producers, consumer, decomposers)
What are producers?
organisms that take in energy from their surroundings to make their own food
What are consumers?
organisms that eat (consume) other organisms for energy
What are decomposers?
consumers that eat waste products for energy (feces, urine, fallen leaves, dead animals)
What are some examples of producers?
plants and some bacteria
What are some examples of consumers?
What are some examples of decomposers?
fungi and some bacteria
group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area at the same time
What do organisms compete with each other for?
food, water, space, mates, etc.
What is a biological community?
group of populations that live in the same area at the same time
A change in one population can change what?
a change in another population
a biological community and the nonliving things in the community's environment
Where is a terrestrial ecosystem located?
Where is an aquatic ecosystem located?
portion of the Earth that supports living things (air, land, fresh water, salt water)
What is a habitat?
the place where an organism lives out its life
What is a niche?
all the strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment
Why does each organism occupy its own niche?
to avoid competition with other type of organisms
Two species can share the same habitat but not the same what?
niche (ex. ants and bacteria both live in the dirt but don't compete for the same resources)
What is a predator?
consumes that hunt and eat other organisms called prey
What is symbiosis?
relationship in which one species lives on, in, or near another species and affects its survival
List the 3 types of symbiosis.
mutualism (both species benefit), commensalism (one species benefits and the other is neither harmed or benefited), parasitism (one species benefits and the other one is harmed)
What is a parasite?
organism that harms but does not kill another organism (host)
Give an example of a parasite.
What are autotrophs?
organisms that make their own food (plants and bacteria)
What are heterotrophs?
organisms that cannot make their own food and must eat other organisms (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores)
What is a herbivore?
eats plants (cow)
What is a carnivore?
eats meat (wolves)
What is an omnivore?
eats plants and meats (humans)
What is the trophic level?
a feeding level in an ecosystem
What is a food chain?
lineup of organisms that shows who eats who
What is at the first trophic level?
producers (make their own food) bottom of the food chain
What is at the second trophic level?
primary consumers (eats plants)
What is at the third trophic level?
secondary consumers (eats meats)
What is at the fourth trophic level?
tertiary consumer (eats meats)
What is at the last trophic level?
decomposers (eat dead animals) bacteria
What happens every time an organism eats?
it obtains energy from its food
Is energy lost or gained from trophic level to trophic level?
How is energy measured on the energy pyramid?
in kilocalories (kcal)
What is an energy pyramid?
picture showing how much energy is transferred to the different trophic levels in a food chain
What is a food web?
a network of connected food chains (and is more realistic b/c most organisms feed on more than one species for food)
Are there limited resources on earth?
yes (that's why we have to recycle)
What is a cycle?
a process that recycles a resource so that you end up with what you started with
What is nitrogen fixation?
bacteria in the ground change nitrogen from the atmosphere to different nitrogen compounds
What is denitrification?
bacteria change the nitrogen compounds back to N2 and release it to the atmosphere
Where does bacteria live?
In plants and they transfer nitrogen to these plants
Where does bacteria take in the nitrogen compounds?
when they eat the dead animals and animal waste
What is seepage?
water that seeps into the ground and plants use it
What is transpiration?
when plants give off water to the atmosphere
What is precipitation?
rain and snowfall from the atmosphere to the earth
What is runoff?
extra water that runs off the land to lower-lying bodies of water
What is evaporation?
water from the bodies of water back into the atmosphere
What is photosynthesis?
plants using CO2 to make their own food
What is respiration?
when animals and plants use the O2 to make energy
What happens during photosynthesis?
plants release O2 back into the atmosphere
What happens during respiration?
animals and plants release CO2 back into the atmosphere