Micro 4000 - Chapter 1

Robert Hooke
reported that living things are composed of little boxes, or cells (living things)
-used a magnifying glass to see these "boxes" - turned out to be cells
-Cell theory: All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells; proposed by Hooke
Viruses are no considered living cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
first observed and described live microorganisms
-Observed this under a microscope; saw structures moving, traced their paths
John Needham
John Needham demonstrated boiled broths still produced microorganisms
-He is supporting spontaneous generation; Broth was boiled BREIFLY (this destroys all the microorganisms existing in broth)
contradicted Needham's results
-Boiled broths longer and sealed flasks by melting necks closed
-Broths remained sterile, unless neck cracked
Controversy still unsolved
-Some argued heating destroyed "vital force" necessary for spontaneous generation
Louis Pasteur
demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air; considered to be the father of microbiology
John Tyndall
John Tyndall finally explained conflicting data --> endospores (heat-resistant)
Germ Theory of Disease
The principle that microorganisms are responsible for the cause diseases
Joseph Lister
used a chemical disinfectant (phenol) to prevent surgical wound infections
-Many people would die from infected wounds; this led to sepsis and death
Microbes from the air entering the wound
Robert Koch
proved that a bacterium causes anthrax
provided the experimental steps, Koch's postulates (4), to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease
Inoculated a person with cowpox virus, who was then protected from smallpox
adding microorganisms to pollutants to hasten their decay
microbiota or normal flora
beneficial microbes