Micro 4000 - Chapter 3

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Terms in this set (...)

Spherical morphology
cocci (a coccus)
Rods morphology
bacilli (a bacillus) - only arranged in to chain category; cannot do the other two because they are not symmetric (cannot multiply on different planes)
Vibrio
short, curved rod
Spirillum
curved rod long enough to form spirals
Spirochete
long spiral-shaped cell with a flexible cell wall and unique mechanism of motility
Monomorphic
bacterial that always maintain one shape
Pleomorphic
bacteria that can vary in shape
Chains arrangement: cell divides in one plane
1) Diplo-
pair of bacterial cells
diplococci and diplobacilli
2) Strepto-
multiple bacterial attached to each other in a long linear chain
Packets arrangement: cell divides into two or more planes perpendicular to one another
1) Tetrads
4 cocci arranged together
2) Sarcinae
8 cocci arranged together
Clusters: cell divides in several planes at random
1) Staphylo-
more than 8 arranged together
Capsule
distinct and gel-like layer
Slime layer
structure is diffused, tightly bound to the cell, irregular
Plasmids
circular, extrachromosomal double stranded DNA molecules that can replicate one their own; smaller than the chromosome and encodes non-essential characteristics that can be of advantage to the cell
-Usually much smaller; few to several hundred genes
-EX: carry the code for the production of enzymes that destroy some antibiotics
Ribosomes
involved in protein synthesis; facilitate the joining of amino acids
Cytoskeleton
interior protein framework; involved in cell division and controlling the cell shape
Storage granules
accumulations of high-molecular-weight polymers; synthesized from nutrients available in access