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AP Human Geography Chapter 8 Study Guide- Be Able to:

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (9)

The shape of states affect potential for communication and conflict with neighbors, can influence the easy or difficulty of internal administration, and can affect social unity. There are two types of boundaries, physical and cultural.

Physical boundaries consists of three types of physical elements which serve as boundaries between states: Mountain, Desert, and Oceans.


Desert boundaries: hard to cross, and sparsely inhabited, common in Africa and Asia,

Mountain Boundaries: Effective for boundaries because they are difficult to cross because they are sparsely inhabited.

Water Boundaries: Which are rivers, lakes, and Oceans. are especially common in East Africa,

Cultural Boundaries:

Two main, geometric( simple straight line drawn on a map), and ethnic( language and religion).

Geometric: northern US boundary with Canada: 49 North Latitude. established in 1846, Also Alaska and the Yukon, territory at 14 West Longitude, and Chad and Libya,

Religious boundaries: religious differences often coincide with the boundaries between states.The most notable religious boundary is in South Asia, when the British partition India into two states on the basis of religion. Same with the island of Erie in Ireland. Language Boundary: Cyprus Greece and Turkey


Mountain: they do not always provide amicable separation of neighbors( Argentina and Chile) Which agreed to divide by the crest of the Andes Mountains, but couldn't come up with a precise location.

Water Boundaries: They may seem permanent, but the precise position of the water may change over time, rivers in particular. Ocean boundaries, cause problems because states usually claim that the boundary line is not usually on the coast line, but out at sea.( reason are for defense and for control of valuable fishing industries)
The UN system was based on five active principal organizations: UN General Assembly, UN Security council, UN Economic and Social council, UN Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. Today there are 192 states within the UN. Some states that aren't part of the UN include: Taiwan, Vatican City, Western Sahara, Palestinian territories, and Tibet. Some UN organizations may include:
-UNPD: UN Development Programme
-UNIFFM: UN Development Fund For Women
-UNV: UN Volunteers
-UNEP: UN Environment Programme
-UNFPA: UN Fund for Population Activities
-UNHCR: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
-UN-HABITAT:UN Human Settlements Programme
-UNICEF: UN Children's Fund

During the Cold War era in 1940, until 1990. Global and regional organization were established primarily to prevent a third World War and to prevent countries from attack. The most important Global organization is the United Nations, established in 1945, The United Nations comprised of 49 states, but membership grew to 189 in 2006 making it a truly global organization. The rapid increase was on three occasions: One in 1955, 1960, and the early 1990's. The United Nations replaced an earlier organization called the League of Nations, It was established after World War 1 but it was never an effective peacekeeping organization. They can vote, establish a peacemaking force and ask states to contribute a military force. Playing an important role in trying to separate warring groups, it must rely on individual countries to supply troops, the UN often lacks enough troops to keep peace effectively. Despite its short comings the United Nations, represents a form, where for the first time in history,virtually all the states of the world can vote on issues without resorting to war.