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AP Human Geography Chapter 8 Study Guide- Be Able to:
Terms in this set (9)
Explain the concept of "state" by:
-Identifying necessary qualifications and characteristics
-Listing examples of states in various regions
A state is a POLITICALLY ORGANIZED territory. It is administered by a sovereign government. It is recognized by a significant portion of the inter national community as a state. It must also contain: a permanent resident population, and an organized economy. A state is what many people call a country. So any example of a country is a state. Before the Constitution was ratified the "United STATES of America" was just a bunch of countries under the rule of a supra nation. We still call them states today because they each have their own government.
Describe the problems of multinational states and stateless nations
Multinational states: Challenges in coexisting nationalities. Ex: Russia, Nigeria, USA,
Stateless nations: War or violence over territory. Ex: The Kurds, Palestinians,
List advantages and disadvantages of different types of boundaries and provide examples.
The shape of states affect potential for communication and conflict with neighbors, can influence the easy or difficulty of internal administration, and can affect social unity. There are two types of boundaries, physical and cultural.
Physical boundaries consists of three types of physical elements which serve as boundaries between states: Mountain, Desert, and Oceans.
Desert boundaries: hard to cross, and sparsely inhabited, common in Africa and Asia,
Mountain Boundaries: Effective for boundaries because they are difficult to cross because they are sparsely inhabited.
Water Boundaries: Which are rivers, lakes, and Oceans. are especially common in East Africa,
Two main, geometric( simple straight line drawn on a map), and ethnic( language and religion).
Geometric: northern US boundary with Canada: 49 North Latitude. established in 1846, Also Alaska and the Yukon, territory at 14 West Longitude, and Chad and Libya,
Religious boundaries: religious differences often coincide with the boundaries between states.The most notable religious boundary is in South Asia, when the British partition India into two states on the basis of religion. Same with the island of Erie in Ireland. Language Boundary: Cyprus Greece and Turkey
Mountain: they do not always provide amicable separation of neighbors( Argentina and Chile) Which agreed to divide by the crest of the Andes Mountains, but couldn't come up with a precise location.
Water Boundaries: They may seem permanent, but the precise position of the water may change over time, rivers in particular. Ocean boundaries, cause problems because states usually claim that the boundary line is not usually on the coast line, but out at sea.( reason are for defense and for control of valuable fishing industries)
List advantages and disadvantages of different shapes of states and provide examples.
Compact: Equal power throughout the state because distance around the state is about the same. Most of the time the state would be landlocked so at the economy may be poor due to lack of sea trading. (+Poland) (-Zimbabwe)
Elongated: Normally has lots of connection to waterways but lacks in state communication because of the great distance along the country.
Prorupted: Extra extension from "main part" of the state can be used as an international border for other countries. Although this may cause uneven distribution of power if one half of the country has more territory than another. (+Austria) (-Afghanistan)
Perforated: The states most likely have a good alliance although the state surrounded obviously has no access to water (ocean/sea). (+Italy/Vatican city) (-South Africa/Lesotho)
Discuss the concepts of imperialism, colonialism, and illustrate some of their consequences on the contemporary political map.
Imperialism: A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. To extend power into foreign countries. This could cause, on the contemporary political map, the extension or destruction of border lines as the dominating state moves to take over the weaker one. The greater state expands.
Colonialism: Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. This could cause, on the contemporary political map, the fragmentation of a state as it may begin to create borders away from its original state.
Explain the role of the following in the internal structure of states:
-Federal or unitary structure
-irredentism, separatism, autonomy, and self-determination
Civil divisions: In the US there are very specific borders on how we divide the citizens. Household->Neighborhood->City->State.
Federal or unitary structure: If the Unitary/Federal power in the state is the most dominant then the idea of internal borders may not exist because the need for smaller forms of government may not be needed.
Irredentism: The state's boundaries may expand to incorporate those whose nationalities lie with the state but they live in another.
Separatism: This may cause the state to split into two or more states due to one part wanting to become independent from the other.
Autonomy: Smaller less significant borders may be created due to rise in power of smaller forces of political power within the community.
Self-Determination: States within a state may begin to defect and potentially create their own borders within the original state.
Define and provide examples of forward-thrust capitals.
"Forward" capitals are capitals of a state that have been relocated in their country to allow a political or economical advantage. Some examples could be:
-Washington D.C: Created after the Constitution splitting the North from the South allowing the idea of equal power between both sides.
-Abuja, Nigeria: Moved to the center of the country to allow easier flow of trade through the country. Also to equalize power.
"Forward" capitals (cont.)
When a capital city is moved to a different location for different economic and strategic reasons. Example: Pakistan moved its capital to Islamabad to orient the nation toward its historic focus in the interior and towards the north.
Summarize the history of the UN and identify issues of current importance regarding it.
The UN system was based on five active principal organizations: UN General Assembly, UN Security council, UN Economic and Social council, UN Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. Today there are 192 states within the UN. Some states that aren't part of the UN include: Taiwan, Vatican City, Western Sahara, Palestinian territories, and Tibet. Some UN organizations may include:
-UNPD: UN Development Programme
-UNIFFM: UN Development Fund For Women
-UNV: UN Volunteers
-UNEP: UN Environment Programme
-UNFPA: UN Fund for Population Activities
-UNHCR: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
-UN-HABITAT:UN Human Settlements Programme
-UNICEF: UN Children's Fund
During the Cold War era in 1940, until 1990. Global and regional organization were established primarily to prevent a third World War and to prevent countries from attack. The most important Global organization is the United Nations, established in 1945, The United Nations comprised of 49 states, but membership grew to 189 in 2006 making it a truly global organization. The rapid increase was on three occasions: One in 1955, 1960, and the early 1990's. The United Nations replaced an earlier organization called the League of Nations, It was established after World War 1 but it was never an effective peacekeeping organization. They can vote, establish a peacemaking force and ask states to contribute a military force. Playing an important role in trying to separate warring groups, it must rely on individual countries to supply troops, the UN often lacks enough troops to keep peace effectively. Despite its short comings the United Nations, represents a form, where for the first time in history,virtually all the states of the world can vote on issues without resorting to war.
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