Terms in this set (57)
What kingdom and phylum do vertebrate belong to?
kingdom Animalia, phylum
What 4 characteristics do all chordates have at some point during development?
tail, notochord, hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal slits
In vertebrates, the notochord is replaced by the ____________________________.
What is cephalization?
complex brains and sense organs
What are the 3 major functions of the backbone?
provides support, protects spinal chord, provides a site for muscle atatchment
What structure protects the brain?
brain case or cranium
What did the development of an endoskeleton allow for?
allows for vertebrates to grow larger then invertebrates
What functions do gills serve in a fish?
obtain oxygen from the oxygen gas dissolved in the water
What is countercurrent flow?
water passes over the gills from front to back and blood circulates through the gills from back to front
What type of circulation does a fish have?
Which classes of fish have a skeleton of cartilage? Which have bone skeletons?
cartilaginous have cartilage
osteichthyes have bone skeletons
Name the 5 different fin types and their function.
dorsal and anal keep fish from rolling over
pectoral and pelvic help to manuver , stop and hover
caudal help move forward
What is spawning?
male and female gametes released near each other in the water
Why do fish lay so many eggs?
to ensure some fish reach maturity
Which fish have internal fertilization?
What is the advantage of internal fertilization and development?
What 2 structures are only found in bony fish?
What is an operculum?
protective plate over gills
How does a swim bladder benefit bony fish?
helps fish float higher or lower in the water
What type of circulation does an amphibian have?
double loop with 3 chambered heart
Describe the path of blood flow through the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
pulmonary: oxygen poor is pumped to skin and lungs where it can release carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen
systematic: oxygen rich blood is pumped to the organs and returns as oxygen poor blood
What type of respiration does an adult amphibian use?
What is cutaneous respiration?
respiring directly though skin
Amphibians can live on land but are not completely independent of the water, why?
they have thin wet skin and eggs without a shell
Name the 4 reproductive strategies that amphibians use to prevent their eggs from drying out.
lay eggs directly in water
lay eggs on moist soil
wrap eggs in leaves
put eggs in a pouch on their back
Provide examples and characteristics of the 3 amphibian orders.
anura- frog- no tail
urodela- newt- tail visible
apoda- caecilians- no foot
Describe the internal and external changes a tadpole undergoes during metamorphosis to become a frog.
external: tail disappears, legs form
internal: herbivore to carnivore, gills to lung and skin
What classes of vertebrates are amniotes?
reptiles, birds, mammals
What are the 3 water retention strategies that all amniotes have.
waterproof skin cells with keratin
respire through lungs
What is keratin and how is it used in the cells of amniotes?
protein that binds to lipids inside the cell forming a water repellant layer that keeps the water inside the animal from reaching the skin
What is an amniotic egg?
almost completely water-proof container that keeps the embryo from drying out and contains nutrients the feed the embryo
What is a placenta?
What class of vertebrates has a placenta?
What is an ectotherm?
animal with body temperature that changes based on the surrounding environment
Which classes of vertebrates are ectotherms?
What is an endotherm?
animal that maintain a high body temperature to meet the energy requirements of flight
Which classes of vertebrates are endotherms?
What are some of the traits that endotherms have to provide insulation.
hair and feathers
Why were birds and mammals able to survive the mass extinction that killed the dinosaurs?
they were endotherms
What is an oviparous animal?
animals that deposits eggs into and external nest and eggs develop completely independent of the adult animal
What is a viviparous animal?
animals that hold the egg inside their body through the duration of development and give birth to live offspring
What function do alveoli serve?
increase the respiratory surface area of the lungs
How long ago did reptiles evolve to live out of the water?
350 million years ago
Provide example organisms and major characteristics of each of the 4 groups of reptiles.
turtles, tortoises and terrapins- bony shell with plates of keratin
sphenodonts- tuatara- new zealand
snakes and lizards- shed skin and flexible skulls
crocodilians- alligators ad crocodiles- semiaquatic ambush predators
What group of reptiles is must closely related to birds?
What are the 2 types of feathers and their functions?
What is different about the skeleton of the bird?
bones are thin and hollow, rigid, enlarged breastbone
What are the major functions of hair? What is hair made of?
insulation and camouflage
dead cells and keratin
What are the 4 types of teeth a mammal can have? What are their functions?
incisors: (front teeth) biting and chewing
canines: stabbing and holding
premolars and molars: crushing and grinding
What is the function of the diaphragm?
when the diaphragm contracts, the chest cavity enlarges and the air is drawn into the lungs
If an animal is more active, what is different about its alveoli?
they are smaller and more numerous for larger suface area
What is characteristic to mammals in reference to how they nourish their young?
What are the 3 groups of mammals? How does each reproduce? Provide example organisms from each group.
marsupials- kangaroo- young matures inside a pouch
monotremes- platypus- cloaca, amniotic eggs
eutherian- human- placenta
What is the time period between fertilization and birth called?
what is a jacobson organ?
sensory receptor found in the top of the mouth that collect particle from the air allowing lizards and snakes to locate prey and avoid predators
why do mammals have 3 inner ear bones?
to hear high pitched sounds
what are 5 evidences birds evolved from therapod dinosaurs?
fused collar bone
rearranged muscles in hip s and legs that improve bipedal movement
no forth and fifth finger