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Paleolithic Era

- c. 10,000 to 2.5 million years ago
- greatest concerns were steady and plentiful food supply and clothing
- stone and bone tools (i.e spears, bows, arrows, fishhooks, harpoons, clay pots)
- humans were nomadic hunters and gatherers
- predates to agricultural societies
- social groups: extended families grew into clans; clans mixed with neighboring groups to form tribes with sophisticated organization (chiefs, leaders, religious figures)
- organized warfare with weapons
- worship of deities; religious rituals included sacrifices to gods, godesses, and spirits
- expression through art and music
- division of labor designed by gender: men hunted, women gathered.

Neolithic Era

- called New Stone Age (8000-5000 B.C.E), the origins of agricultural society
- earliest evidence of sedentary agriculture dates back to between 10,000 and 8000 B.C.E
-domestication of animals and cultivation of crops
- the earliest method of cultivation was slash-and-burn agriculture
- earliest agricultural societies appeared in southwestern Asia and spread to India, Europe, and Asia; Meso

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