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equal concentrations outside and inside the cell


larger concentration of substance outside the cell, causes water to move out.


smaller concentration of substance outside the cell, causes water to move in.

volumetric thirst

occurs as a result of hypovolemia. loss of volume in the extracellular fluid compartment

osmometric thirst

the motivational state that arises when cells become dehydrate in an attempt to dilute a highly concentrated extracellular fluid compartment


an enzyme triggered by baroreceptors near the kidney which turns into angiotensin II


helps reabsorb sodium


anti-diuretic hormone. released by posterior pituitary, encourages kidney to reabsorb water.

subfornical organ

on the blood side of the BBB. communicates with median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to promote drinking

median preoptic nucleus (MnPO)

promotes drinking


around the ventricles


receptor that detects drop in blood pressure


detects changes in osmotic pressure. stimulate drinking behavior


form of stored glucose


a hormone released from the pancreas that converts glycogen back into glucose


pancreatic hormone that helps store glucose in the liver


hormone that provides a chronic signal about the fat levels and stimulates arcuate POMC/CART and NPY/AgRP neurons to trigger changes in food intake

lipostatic hypothesis

as leptin increases, food intake decreases. tryglicerides, and the role of leptin from fat

arcuate nucleus

monitors energy balance. contains 2 opposing systems for controlling food intake, each which responds to peptide signals.

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