show exponential growth and have small organisms with early maturation, short life span, and limited parental care to offspring
A specific role of a species within an ecosystem, including its use of resources, and relationships with other species.
in a biological community various populations sharing environmental resources through specialization thereby reducing direct competition
Number of different species in the biosphere, the number and relative abundance of species in a biological community
A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
evolution of two species, both of which are unpalatable and, have poisonous stingers or some other defense mechanism, to resemble each other
Competitive exclusion principle
ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time
conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas, process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere
Gross primary productivity
the rate at which organic matter is assimilated by plants and other producers during a period of time over a certain area
Net primary productivity
The gross primary productivity minus the energy used by the producers for cellular respiration; represents the storage of chemical energy in an ecosystem available to consumers.
Standing crop biomass
the weight or mass of above-ground, dry plant material in a defined area at a given point in time.
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
the oxidation of ammonium compounds in dead organic material into nitrates and nitrites by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants)
the formation of ammonia compounds in the soil by the action of bacteria on decaying matter
the current rapid decline in the variety of life on Earth, largely due to the effects of human culture