The trophoblast forms a membrane, called_________ that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the woman's movements
By the end of the second week, cells of the trophoblast form another protective membrane, the chorion, which surrounds the amnion. From the ____, tiny hairlike villi, or blood vessels; begin to emerge
By bringing the embryo's and mother's blood close together, the____ permits food and oxygen to reach the organism and waste products to be carried away
The placenta is connected to the developing organisms by the_______ which first appears as a tiny stalk and eventually grows to a length of one to three feet. The __________ contains one large vein, which delivers blood loaded with nutrients, and two arteries, which removes waste products.
What happens at the end of the zygote period?
The developing organism has found food and shelter. These dramatic beginnings take place before most mothers know they are pregnant.
The period of the ________ lasts from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy. During these brief 6 weeks, the more rapid prenatal changes take place as the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs
At first, the nervous system develops fastest. The ectoderm folds over to form a ______ which will become the spinal cord and the brain. At 3.5 weeks production of neurons begins deep inside the ________ at the astounding pace of more than 250,000 per minute
The period of the ____________ from the ninth week to the end of pregnancy, is the longest prenatal period. During this growth and finishing" phase the organism increases rapidly in size
Prenatal development is sometimes divided into _________ or three equal time periods. At the end of the third month, the first ________ is complete
By the middle of the second trimester, between 17 and 20 weeks, the new being has grown large enough that the mother can feel its movements. A white cheeselike substance called_________ protects its skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid
White, downy hair called _________ also appears over the entire body, helping the vernix stick to the skin
Age of viability
During the final trimester, a fetus born early has a chance for survival. The point at which the fetus can first survive, called _________, occurs sometime between 22 and 26 weeks.
The term___________ refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during prenatal period. It comes from the Greek word teras, meaning "malformation or "monstrosity."
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Mental retardation; impaired motor coordination, attention, memory and language; and overactivity are typical of children with the disorder. Distinct physical symptoms also accompany _________, including slow physical growth and a particular pattern facial abnormalities: widely spaced eyes, short eyelid openings, a small upturned nose, thin upper lip and a small head, indicating that the brain has not developed fully.
Fetal alcohol effects
Seen in children of mothers who generally drank alcohol in smaller quantities- affected individuals display only some of the abnormalities.
Rh factor incompatibility
When the mother is Rh- negative and the father is Rh-negative the baby may inherit the father's Rh-positive blood type. If even a little of a fetus's Rh-positive blood crosses the placenta into the Rh-negative mother's bloodstream, the begins to form antibodies to the foreign Rh protein. If these enter the fetus's system, they destroy red blood cells reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues
A __________ is an inborn, automatic responses to a particular form a stimulation. ______ are the newborn baby's most obvious organized patterns of behavior.
States of arousal
Throughout the day and night, newborn infants move in and out of five ________________ or degrees of sleep and wakefulness.
Rapid-eye movement, sleep
During irregular, or ______________ brain wave activity is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. The eye dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure and breathing are uneven; slight body movements occur.
Non rapid eye movement sleep
The body is almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing , and brain wave activity are slow and even
Sudden infant death syndrome
The unexpected death usually during the night of an infant under 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation.
Vision is the least developed of the newborn baby's senses. As a result, newborn babies cannot focus their eyes well, and _________ or fineness of discrimination is limited.
As the child's overall size increases, different parts of the body grow at different rates. Two growths patterns describe these changes. The first is the _______________-- from the latin word for "head to tail" During the prenatal period, the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body. At birth the head takes up one-fourth of total body length, the legs only one-third.
In the second pattern, the _________________ growth proceeds, literally, from near to far," from the center of the body outward. In the prenatal period, the head, chest and trunk grow first, then the arms and legs and finally the hands and the feet. During infancy and childhood, the arms and legs continue to grow somewhat ahead of the hands and feet
The human brain has 100 to 200 billion _____________ or nerve cells that store and transmit information, many of which have thousands of direct connections with other __________. ____________ differ from other body cells in that they are not tightly packed together.
Between the neurons are tiny gaps, or __________ where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch
Neurons send messages to one another by releasing chemicals called_____________ which cross the synapses
Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses in a process called ____________, that returns neurons not needed at the moment to an uncommitted state so they can support development. In all about 40 percent of synapses are pruned during childhood and adolescence to reach the adult level. For this process to go forward appropriate stimulation of the child's brain is vital during periods in which the formation of synapses is at its peak
If few neurons are produced after the prenatal period, what causes the dramatic increase in brain size during the first two years? About half the brain's volume is made up of _____________, which are responsible for myelination.
The coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath (myelin) that improves the efficiency of message transfer
Surrounding the brain is the ________________ which resembles a half shelled walnut. It is the largest, most complex brain structure-- accounting for 85 percent of the brain's weight, containing the greatest number of neurons and synapses, and responsible for the unique intelligence of our species. Because the__________ is the last brain structure to stop growing, it is sensitive to environmental influences for a much longer period than any other part of the brain.
Researchers study when brain lateralization occurs to learn more about ________. In a high_________ cortex, many areas are not yet committed to specific functions. Consequently, the cortex has a high capacity for learning. In addition, if a part of the brain is damaged, other parts can take over tasks that it would have handled. But once the hemispheres lateralize, damage to a specific region means that the abilities it controls cannot be recovered to the extent or as easily as earlier.
experience -expectant brain growth
How, then can we characterize appropriate stimulation during the early years? To answer this question, researchers distinguish between two types of brain development. The first,_________, refers to the young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences--- opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment.
experience--dependent brain growth
The second type of brain development_______ occurs throughout our lives. it consists of additional growth and refinement of establishment brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals cultures.
This is a wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. It usually appears in the first year of life when a baby's mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle feeding is also inadequate. Her starving baby become painfully thin and is in danger of dying.
This is caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein. The disease usually strikes after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age. It is common in regions where children get just enough calories from starchy food, but little protein. The child's body responds by breaking down its own protein reserves, which causes the swelling and other symptoms.
Nonorganic failure to thrive
We may not think of affection and stimulation as necessary for healthy physical growth, but they are just vital as food. _________ is a growth disorder that results from lack of parental love, is usually present by 18 months of age. Infants who have it show all the signs of marasmus______ their bodies look wasted, and they are withdrawn and apathetic. But no organic cause for the baby's failure to grow can be found. The baby is offered enough food and has no serious illness
Newborn reflexes, discusses in Chapter 3, make ___________ possible in the young infant. In this form of learning, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. Once the baby's nervous system make the connection between the two stimuli, the neutral stimulus will produce the behavior by itself. ____________ helps infants recognize which events usually occur together in the every day world, so they cam anticipate what is about to happen next. As a result, the environment becomes more orderly and predictable.
In _____________ infants act, or operate on the environment and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again. A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response is called a reinforce
A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response is caused_________. For example, sweet liquid ________ the sucking in newborns.
Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response is called____.
At birth, the human brain is set up to be attracted to novelty. Infants tend to respond more strongly to a new element that has entered their environment . ________ refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation. Looking, heart rate and respiration may all decline, indicating a loss of interest.
Once the looking , heart rate, and respiration rate may all decline, indicating a loss of interest, a new stimulus--- a change in the environment --- causes responsiveness to return to a high level, an increase called recovery. For example, when you walk through a familiar space, you notice things that are new and different-- recently hung picture on the wall or a piece of furniture that has been moved. Habituation and recovery make learning more efficient by enabling us to focus our attention on those aspects of the environment we know the least about
Dynamic systems theory or motor development
According to this mastery of motor skills involve acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment.
A general principle explains these early pattern preferences. Contrast refers to the difference in the amount of light between adjacent regions in a pattern. If babies are sensitive to the contrast in two or more patterns, they prefer the one with more contrast.
We make sense of these running streams of light, sound, tactile, odor and taste information by preventing objects and events as unified wholes
According to the _________ Gibson's ________, infants actively search for invariant features of the environment.
Infants actively search for ___________ of the environment _______ those remain stable------ in a constantly changing perceptual world
Piaget's first stage, spans the first two years of life. Piaget believed that infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ear, hands and other sensorimotor equipment. They cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads. But by the end of toddlerhood, children can solve practical everyday problems and represent their experiences in speech, gesture and play. To appreciate Piaget's view of how vast changes take place, let's consider some important concepts
According to Piaget , specific psychological structures-- organized ways of making sense of experience called________--change with age. At first ______ are sensorimotor action patterns.
The next time you have a chance, notice how infants and toddlers tirelessly repeat actions that lead to interesting effects. ________ involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment. It consists of two complementary activities, assimilation and accomodation
During________ we use our current schemes to interpret the external world. For example, when Timmy dropped objects, he was assimilating them to his sensorimotor "dropping scheme"
In ______ we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely. When Timmy dropped objects in different ways, he modified dropping scheme to take account of the varied properties of objects
Schemes also change through _______ a process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact with the environment. Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.
According to Piaget, at birth infants know so little about the world that they cannot purposefully explore it. The _______ provides a special means of adapting their first schemes. It involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity. The reaction is "circular" because as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that first occurred by the chance becomes strengthened into a new scheme. At first the _____ centers around the infant's own body. Later, it turns outward, toward manipulations of objects. Then in the second year, it becomes experimental and creative, aimed at producing novel outcomes. Infants' difficulty inhibiting new and interesting behaviors may underlie the circular reaction. This immaturity in inhibition seems to be adaptive, helping to ensure that new skills will not be interrupted before they consolidate. Piaget considered revisions in the __________ so important that named the sensorimotor substages after them.
Intentional or goal directed, behavior
Now behaviors that lead to new schemes no longer have a hit or miss quality- accidentally bringing the thumb to the mouth or happening to hit the toy. Instead, 8 to 12 month olds can engage ________ coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems. Consider Piaget's famous object-hiding task, on which he shows the baby an attractive toy and then hides it behind his hand or under a cover. Infants of this substage can find the object by coordinating two schemes-- "pushing" aside the obstacle and "grasping" the toy. Piaget regarded these action sequences as the foundation for all problems solving.
Retrieving hidden objects reveals that infants have begun to master ______ the understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight. But awareness of object permanence is not yet complete. If the baby reaches several times for an object at a first hiding place and see it has moved to a second, she will still search for it in the first hiding place. Because babies make this A-not B- search error. Piaget concluded, they do not have a clear image of the object as persisting when hidden from view.
Substage 6 brings the ability to create____________ mental representation--- internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate. Our most powerful__________ are of two kinds. images or mental pictures of objects, people and spaces and (2) concepts or categories in which similar objects or events are grouped together .
Representation also enable older toddlers to solve advanced object permanence problems involving invisible displacement- finding a toy moved while out of sight, such as into a small box while under cover. It permits ____________-- the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present. And it makes possible make believe play.
Make believe play
It is when children act out everyday and imaginary activities. As the sensorimotor stage draws to a close, mental symbols have become major instruments of thinking.
Violation of expectation method
Researchers habituate babies to a physical event (expose them to the event until their looking declines). Then they determine whether infants recover to (look longer at) an expectant event (a variation of the first event that follows physical laws) or an unexpected event (a variation that violates physical laws. Recovery to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is "surprised by a deviation from physical reality, as indicted by heightened attention and therefore is aware of that aspect of the physical world.
core knowledge perspective
Babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems or core domains of thought. Each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new related information and therefor supports early rapid development
Most information-processing researchers assume that we hold information in three parts of the mental system for processing the sensory register; working or short-term, memory and long term memory. As information flows through each, we can use___________ to operate on and transform it, increasing the chances that we will retain information use it efficiently and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances.
First, information enter the _________ where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly. Look around you and then close your eyes. An image of what you saw persists for a few seconds, but then it decays, or disappears, unless you see mental strategies to preserve it.
working or short term memory
The second part of the mind is ____________ where we actively apply mental strategies a we work on a limited amount of information. Also the more thoroughly we learn information,the more automatically we use it. Automatic processing expands working memory by permitting us to focus on other information simultaneously.
Long term memory
The longer we hold information in working memory the likelihood it will transfer to the third, and largest,storage area. This is our permanent knowledge base, which is unlimited. in fact, we store so much in the long term memory that we sometimes have problems with retrieval or getting information back from the system.