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Everything that ever happened in American History. EVER.

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Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans
Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth
Northwest Passage
believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth
Conversion Experience
required of members of the Puritan Church; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church
Social Reciprocity
society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly
Church of England
Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty
Atlantic slave trade
often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange
Jamestown
first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River
John Smith
introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks
Pocahontas
key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617
Mayflower Compact
foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
John Winthrop
Calvinist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity"); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay
"City on a Hill"
exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs
Indentured servants
settlers to pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright system
Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
King James I, King Charles
reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors
William Penn and the Quakers
settled in Pennsylvania, believed the "Inner Light" could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers
Roger Williams
challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church
Anne Hutchinson
challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
The Half-Way Covenant
New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
Bacon's Rebellion
rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans
Navigation Acts
only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 1763
Mercantilism
ensured trade with mother country, nationalism; too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists
Charles II, James II
tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures
William and Mary
ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies
Dominion of New England
combined Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one "supercolony" governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a "supergovernor"
The Glorious Revolution
William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures
James Oglethorpe
established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
The Enlightenment
emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity
Benjamin Franklin
connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan
The Great Awakening
began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities
Deists
believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
George Whitefield
powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity
Jonathan Edwards
Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance, wrote "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
New Lights vs. Old Lights
New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independent of each other
Albany Plan of Union
colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council"); never took effect
French and Indian War
French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection; more independent stand against Britain
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
Salutary Neglect
Parliament took minor actions in the colonies, allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements
Writs of Assistance
search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis
Townshend Act (1767)
similar to Navigation; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries
Sugar Act
increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs
Stamp Act
taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives
Stamp Act Congress
held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
Virginia Resolves
"no taxation without representation," introduced by Patrick Henry
Currency Act
prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
Virtual Representation
all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote
The Loyal Nine
group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city
Sons of Liberty
organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation
Declaratory Act
allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists' say
Boston Massacre
British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter
Committees of Correspondence
committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self¬government, cooperation between colonies
Tea Act (1773)
intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)
Boston Tea Party
peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians
Quebec Acts
former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony
Suffolk Resolves
organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain
Olive Branch Petition
politely demanded from the king a cease¬fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts,. guarantee of American rights
Thomas Paine, Common Sense
stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution; appealed to American emotions
George Washington
American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule
Whigs (Patriots)
most numerous in New England, fought for independence
Tories (Loyalists)
fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy
British strengths and weaknesses
British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army; exhausted resources (Hessians hired), national debt
Colonial strengths and weaknesses
fair amount of troops, short guerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington); nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles
Battle of Saratoga
American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
Valley Forge
scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben
Battle of Yorktown
last major battle; surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies
Treaty of Paris (1783)
full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland
American society during the Revolution
British-occupied cities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loaned money, African-Americans and Native Americans involved
Articles of Confederation
states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments; too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes
Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786)
foundation for First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
defined process for territories to become states (population reached 60,000), forbade slavery in the new territories
Alexander Hamilton
pushed for Assumption (federal government to assume state debts), pushed creation of the National Bank (most controversial), loose interpretation of Constitution, leader of Federalist Party
James Madison
strong central government, separation of powers, "extended republic"
Shays's Rebellion
mistreated farmers, fear of monocracy, forced people to think about central government
Connecticut Compromise
advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population
Virginia Plan
bicameral congressional representation based on population
New Jersey Plan
equal representation in unicameral congress
Commerce Compromise
congress could tax imports but not exports
Federalism
strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable constitution
Changes in the Constitution from the Articles
stronger union of states, equal and population-based representation, simple majority vote (with presidential veto), regulation of foreign and interstate commerce, execution by president, power to enact taxes, federal courts, easier amendment process
Elastic Clause ("necessary and proper")
gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists wanted states' rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion, more power to less-rich and common people; Federalists wanted strong central government, more power to experienced, separation of church and state, stated that national government would protect individual rights
The Federalist Papers
written anonymously by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison; commentary on Constitution, republicanism extended over large territory
Judiciary Act of 1789
established federal district courts that followed local procedures, Supreme Court had final jurisdiction; compromise between nationalists and advocates for states' rights
Bill of Rights
protected rights of individual from the power of the central government
Bank of the United States
Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
Report on Public Credit
proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of state debts, set up the first National Bank
Report on Manufactures (tariffs)
Hamilton praised efficient factories with few managers over many workers, promote emigration, employment opportunities, applications of technology
Strict vs. Loose interpretation of the Constitution
loose interpretation allowed for implied powers of Congress (such as the National Bank), strict interpretation implied few powers to Congress
Whiskey Rebellion
Western Pennsylvanian farmers' violent protest against whiskey excise tax, Washington sent large army to put down revolt, protests to be limited to non-violent
Citizen Genet
Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine
Impressment
British Navy would take American sailors and force them to work for Britain
Jay's Treaty
provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes
Nullification
states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional
Federalists and Republicans
the two political parties that formed following Washington's presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments
Washington's Farewell Address
warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
response to French attempts for alliance with US
XYZ Affair
French foreign minister (Talleyrand) demanded bribe in order to meet with American peace commission, made Adams unpopular among the people
Alien and Sedition Acts
meant to keep government unquestioned by critics, particularly of the Federalists
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutional
12th Amendment
required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates
Second Great Awakening
emphasis on personal salvation, emotional response, and individual faith; women and blacks; nationalism (Manifest Destiny)
Election of 1800
Adams, Jefferson, and Burr: Adams lost, Jefferson and Burr tied, Hamilton convinced other Federalists to vote for Jefferson to break the tie
Barbary Pirates
North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtained fees from most European powers
Midnight judges
judges appointed to Supreme Court by Adams in the last days of his presidency to force them upon Jefferson, Marshall among those appointed
Marbury v. Madison
John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional
Lewis and Clark expedition
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on "Voyage of Discovery"
Non-Intercourse Act
sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing
Macon's Bill No. 2
president has power to cease trade with any foreign country that violated American neutrality
Embargo Act (1807)
prohibited exports (and imports) based in American ports, most controversial Jefferson legislation
War hawks
Clay and Calhoun, eager for war with Britain (War of 1812)
Henry Clay and the American System
Henry Clay aimed to make the US economically independent from Europe (e.g., support internal improvements, tariff protection, and new national bank)
John C. Calhoun
opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave-owner (right to own property, slaves as property)
William Henry Harrison
military hero from War of 1812; elected president 1840, died of pneumonia a month later, gave presidency to Tyler
Battle of Tippecanoe
decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison's campaign for presidency
Hartford Convention
December 1814, opposed War of 1812, called for one-term presidency, northern states threatened to secede if their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern and western states, supported nullification, end of Federalist Party
Essex case
Federalist cause leading up to Hartford Convention
Era of Good Feelings
Monroe presidency, national unity behind Monroe, post-war boom (foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco), Depression of 1819 (cheap British imports, tightened credit, affected West the most)
James Monroe
provided country with a break from partisan politics, Missouri Compromise, issued Monroe Doctrine
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Maine as free state, Missouri as slave state, slavery prohibited north of 36°30'
Tallmadge Amendment
no further introduction of slaves into Missouri, all children born to slaves to become free at 25
Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817
agreement between US and Britain to remove armed fleets from the Great Lakes
Adams-Onis Treaty
remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined
Monroe Doctrine
Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs; supported Washington's goal for US neutrality in Americas
Panic of 1819
Bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly
Election of 1824
"corrupt bargain" and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson
Tariff of Abominations
under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocate free trade
Jackson's Presidency
focused on the "Common Man;" removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto
Transportation Revolution
river traffic, road building, canals (esp. Erie), rise of NYC
Erie Canal
goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways
National Road
part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion
Indian Removal Act
Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion
"Trail of Tears"
Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, high death toll
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation
Worcester v. Georgia
Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes
Spoils System
"rotation in office;" Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet
Lowell mill/system
young women employed by Lowell's textile company, housed in dormitories
Cotton Gin
allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, less need for slaves
Nullification Controversy
southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
written by Calhoun, regarding tariff nullification
Bank of the United States
destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution
Pet banks
small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury
Independent Treasury Bill
government would hold its revenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping the funds away from private corporations; "America's Second Declaration of Independence"
Specie
paper money; specie circular decreed that the government would not accept specie for government land
Maysville Road Veto
vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state
Liberty Party
supported abolition, broke off of Anti-Slavery Society
Whig Party
believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)
John C. Calhoun
opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave owner
Marshall Court (all cases)
Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannot control government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v. Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties' consent)
Second Great Awakening
religious movements, traveling "meetings," rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G. Finney
Burned-Over District
heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith's Mormonism movement
Horace Mann
worked to reform the American education system, abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix
William Lloyd Garrison
editor of The Liberator (strongly abolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery), fought for feminist movement ("Am I not a woman and a sister" picture of slave woman)
Frederick Douglass
runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star
Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
for women's rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
Hudson River School
taught American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects
Transcendentalism
founded by Emerson, strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strong references to nature
Ralph Waldo Emerson
in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote "The American Scholar"
Henry David Thoreau
in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writing Walden and On Civil Disobedience, proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants
Nat Turner's Rebellion
led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation
Yeoman Farmers
family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners
Underground Railroad
network of safe houses of white abolitionists used to bring slaves to freedom
Harriet Tubman
worked alongside Josiah Henson to make repeated trips to get slaves out of the South into freedom
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
fought for women's rights and abolition, "Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!"
Dorothea Dix
worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann
John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community
John Noyes, New York; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, and complex marriage
New Harmony
first Utopian society, by Robert Owen
"Wage slaves"
northern factory workers who were discarded when too old to work (unlike the slaves who were still kept fed and clothed in their old age)
Nativism
anti-immigrant, especially against Irish Catholics
The Alamo
Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio), Texans lost great number of people, "Remember the Alamo"
Stephen Austin
American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
James K. Polk
"dark horse" Democratic candidate; acquired majority of the western US (Mexican Cession, Texas Annexation, Oregon Country), lowered tariffs, created Independent Treasury
Oregon and "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
Oregon Territory owned jointly with Britain, Polk severed its tie to Britain, forced to settle for compromise south of 49° rather than 54°40'
Manifest Destiny
stated the United States was destined to span the breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible, advocated by Polk
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
acquired Mexican Cession (future California, Arizona, and New Mexico); Mexico acknowledged American annexation of Texas
Wilmot Proviso
slavery to be barred in all territory ceded from Mexico; never fully passed Congress
California Gold Rush
gold discovery in Sutter's Mill in 1848 resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849, led to application for statehood, opened question of slavery in the West
William Seward
Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; purchase of Alaska "Seward's Folly"
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Fugitive Slave Act
runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters (they were treated as property — running away was as good as stealing)
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin
depicted the evils of slavery (splitting of families and physical abuse); increased participation in abolitionist movement, condemned by South
Know-Nothing (American) Party
opposed to all immigration, strongly anti-Catholic
Popular Sovereignty
the principle that a state should decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act
territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); proposed by Stephen A. Douglas
"Bleeding Kansas"
border ruffians in election on issue of slavery incited controversy, proslavery group attacked Lawrence, Kansas, Pottawatomie Massacre
Lecompton Constitution
proslavery constitution in Kansas, supported by Buchanan, freesoilers against it (victorious), denied statehood until after secession
John Brown
led Pottawatomie Massacre, extreme abolitionist who believed he was doing God's work
Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856)
John Brown and his sons slaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress
Republican Party
formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act, banned in the South, John C Fremont first presidential candidate
Harpers Ferry (1859)
Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North
Dred Scott v. Sandford
slaves could not sue in federal courts (blacks no longer considered citizens), slaves could not be taken from masters except by the law, Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, Congress not able to prohibit slavery in a state
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
over Senate seat for Illinois (Douglas victor), Lincoln stated the country could not remain split over the issue of slavery
Freeport Doctrine
Douglas was able to reconcile the Dred Scott Decision with popular sovereignty; voters would be able to exclude slavery by not allowing laws that treated slaves as property
Fort Sumter
first shots are fired at Charleston, North Carolina
20-Negro Law
exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army; "rich man's war but a poor man's fight"
Anaconda plan
the Union planned a blockade that would not allow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy; control the Mississippi and Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico
Ulysses S. Grant
won battles in the West and raised northern morale (esp. Shiloh, Fort Henry, and Fort Donelson), made Union commanding general
William T. Sherman
pushed through northern Georgia, captured Atlanta, "march to the sea" (total war and destruction), proceeded to South Carolina
Robert E. Lee
opposed to slavery and secession, but stayed loyal to Virginia, despite offer for command of Union Army
Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
Lee's chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer
Battle of Antietam
Lee's attack on Maryland in hopes that he could take it from the Union, bloodiest day of the war, stalemate, McClellan replaced by Burnside, stalemate, South would never be so close to victory again
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Lincoln following Antietam (close enough to a victory to empower the proclamation), declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did not include border states), symbolic gesture to support Union's moral cause in the war
Battle of Gettysburg
Lee invaded Pennsylvania, bloodiest battle of the war, Confederate Pickett's Charge (disastrous), Lee forced to retreat (not pursued by Meade), South doomed to never invade North again, Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln (nation over union)
New York City draft riots (1863)
drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned
Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
South divided into 5 military districts; states to guarantee full suffrage for blacks; ratify 14th amendment
Compromise of 1877
South to gain removal of last troops from Reconstruction; North wins Hayes as president
Andrew Carnegie
achieved an abnormal rise in class system (steel industry), pioneered vertical integration (controlled Mesabie Range to ship ore to Pittsburgh), opposed monopolies, used partnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as a manager/partner), Bessemer steel process
Standard Oil Trust
small oil companies sold stock and authority to Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company (consolidation), cornered world petroleum market
John D. Rockefeller
Standard Oil Company, ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest)
Vertical and horizontal integration
beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental)
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
forbade restraint of trade and did not distinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton Anti-Trust Act)
United States vs. EC Knight Company
decision under Sherman Anti-Trust Act shot down by Supreme Court — sugar refining was manufacturing rather than trade/commerce
National Labor Union
founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
Knights of Labor
founded by Uriah Stephens (1869); excluded corrupt and well-off; equal female pay, end to child/convict labor, employer-employee relations, proportional income tax; "bread and butter" unionism (higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions)
Terence V. Powderly
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
American Federation of Labor
craft unions that left the Knights (1886), led by Gompers, women left out of recruitment efforts
Samuel Gompers
focused on skilled workers (harder to replace than unskilled), coordinated crafts unions, supported 8¬hour workday and injury liability
"Yellow dog contracts"
fearing the rise of labor unions, corporations forced new employees to sign and promise not to be part of a union
Pinkertons
detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
10-year moratorium on Chinese immigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing to work for cheap salaries)
Haymarket Bombing
bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers' unions
Eugene V. Debs
led railroad workers in Pullman Strike, arrested; Supreme Court (decision in re Debs) legalized use of injunction (court order) against unions and strikes
Social Darwinism
natural selection applied to human competition, advocated by Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
single tax on speculated land to ameliorate industrialization misery
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards
state-run economy to provide conflict-free society
Karl Marx, Das Kapital
working class exploited for profit, proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society
Thomas Edison
electric light, phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures
Louis Sullivan
led architectural movement to create building designs that reflected buildings' functions, especially in Chicago
Interstate Commerce Act
created Interstate Commerce Commission to require railroads to publish rates (less discrimination, short/long haul), first legislation to regulate corporations, ineffective ICC
Social Gospel movement
stressed role of church and religion to improve city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladen; influenced settlement house movement and Salvation Army
Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association (YMCA & YWCA)
provided housing and recreation to city youth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all youth
Jane Addams
helped lead settlement house movement, co-founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty
Hull House
Jane Addams's pioneer settlement house (center for women's activism and social reform) in Chicago
Salvation Army
established by "General" William Booth, uniformed volunteers provided food, shelter, and employment to families, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bands in order to instill middle-class virtues
Declining death rate
sewer systems and purification of water
New immigrants vs. old immigrants
old immigrants from northern and western Europe came seeking better life; new immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe searching for opportunity to escape worse living conditions back home and often did not stay in the US
Cult of domesticity
Victorian standards confined women to the home to create an artistic environment as a statement of cultural aspirations
William Marcy Tweed
leader of Tammany Hall, gained large sums of money through the political machine, prosecuted by Samuel Tilden and sent to jail
Tammany Hall
Democratic political machine in NYC, "supported" immigrants and poor people of the city, who were needed for Democratic election victories
Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie, The Financier
attacked industrial elite, called for business regulation, publisher refused works breaking with Victorian ideals
Regionalist and naturalist writers
writing took a more realistic approach on the world, regionalist writers focused on local life (Sarah Orne Jewett), naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane)
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
government compromised to buy and coin $2-4 million/month; government stuck to minimum and inflation did not occur (lower prices); economy grew
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
government to buy silver to back money in addition to gold
James G. Blaine
Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland)
Pendleton Civil Service Act
effectively ended spoils system and established civil service exams for all government positions, under Pres. Garfield
Farmers'Alliance movement
Southern and Midwestern farmers expressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop — farmers had little cash flow during the year), criticized national banks
Greenback Party
supported expanded money supply, health/safety regulations, benefits for workers and farmers, granger (farmer)-supported
Populist Party
emerged from Farmers' Alliance movement (when subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress), denounced Eastern Establishment that suppressed the working classes; Ignatius Donnelly (utopian author), Mary E Lease, Jerry Simpson
Convict-lease system
blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racial hierarchy
Civil Rights Cases
Civil Rights Act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the fourteenth amendment protected people from governmental infringement of rights and had no effect on acts of private citizens
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court legalized the "separate but equal" philosophy
Munn v. Illinois
private property subject to government regulation when property is devoted to public interest; against railroads
Jim Crow laws
educational and residential segregation; inferior facilities allotted to African-Americans, predominantly in South
Coxey's Army
Coxey and unemployed followers marched on Washington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary public works program
Panic of 1893
8,000 businesses collapsed (including railroads); due to stock market crash, overbuilding of railroads, heavy farmer loans, economic disruption by labor efforts, agricultural depression; decrease of gold reserves led to Cleveland's repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act
William Jennings Bryan
repeat candidate for president, proponent of silver-backing (16:1 platform), cross of gold speech against gold standard; Democratic candidate (1896)
Free silver
Populists campaigned for silver-backed money rather than gold-backed, believed to be able to relieve working conditions and exploitation of labor
Triangle Shirtwaist fire
workers unable to escape (locked into factory), all died; further encouraged reform movements for working conditions
Gifford Pinchot
head of federal Division of Forestry, contributed to Roosevelt's natural conservation efforts
Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management
increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewarding those who worked fast; efficiency
Industrial Workers of the World
supported Socialists, militant unionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause
"Big BM" Haywood
leader of IWW, from Western Federation of Miners
Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class
satirized wealthy captains of industry, workers and engineers as better leaders of society
Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life
activist government to serve all citizens (cf. Alexander Hamilton); founded New Republic magazine
John Dewey
social ideals to be encouraged in public school (stress on social interaction), learning by doing
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
law meant to evolve as society evolves, opposed conservative majority
Booker T. Washington
proponent of gradual gain of equal rights for African-Americans
"Atlanta Compromise" speech
given by BTW to ease whites' fears of integration, assuring them that separate but equal was acceptable, ideas challenged by DuBois
WEB DuBois, Souls of Black Folk
opposed BTW's accommodation policies, called for immediate equality, formed Niagara Movement to support his ideas
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
formed by white progressives, adopted goals of Niagara Movement, in response to Springfield Race Riots
Muckrakers
uncovered the "dirt" on corruption and harsh quality of city/working life; heavily criticized by Theodore Roosevelt; Ida Tarabell (oil companies), David Graham Phillips (Senate), Aschen School (child labor — photography), mass magazines McClure's and Collier's
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
revealed unsanitary nature of meat-packing industry, inspired Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
Thomas Nast
political muckraking cartoonist, refused bribes to stop criticism
Robert La Follette
created the Wisconsin Idea (as governor of Wisconsin) — regulated railroad, direct-primary system, increased corporate taxes, reference library for lawmakers
Mann Act
made it illegal to transport women across state borders for "immoral purposes," violated by black boxer Jack Johnson (w/ white woman)
Women's Christian Temperance Union
led by Francis Willard, powerful "interest group" following the civil war, urged women's suffrage, led to Prohibition
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
women must gain economic rights in order to impact society (cf. rising divorce rates)
Northern Securities Case
Northern Securities Company (JP Morgan and James G. Hill - railroads) seen by Roosevelt as "bad" trust, Supreme Court upheld his first trust-bust
Theodore Roosevelt
first "modern" president, moderate who supported progressivism (at times conservative), bypassed congressional opposition (cf. Jackson), significant role in world affairs
Square Deal
Roosevelt's plan that aimed to regulate corporations (Anthracite coal strike, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Elkins and Hepburn Acts), protect consumers (meat sanitation), and conserve natural resources (Newlands Reclamation Act)
Preservationism vs. Conservationism
Roosevelt and Pinchot sided on conservation rather than preservation (planned and regulated use of forest lands for public and commercial uses)
William H. Taft
"trustbuster" (busted twice as many as Roosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, caused Republican split)
Bull Moose Party
party formed from Republican split by Roosevelt, more progressive values, leaving "Republican Old Guard" to control Republican party
New Nationalism
federal government to increase power over economy and society by means of progressive reforms, developed by Roosevelt (after presidency)
New Freedom
ideas of Wilson: small enterprise, states' rights, more active government, trust busting, left social issues up to the states
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction; far less active than Roosevelt, Clayton Anti-trust Act (to enforce Sherman), Child Labor Act
Federal Reserve Act
created Federal Reserve System, regional banks set up for twelve separate districts, final authority of each bank lay with the Federal Reserve Board, paper money to be issued "Federal Reserve Notes"
Pan-Americanism
James G. Blaine sought to open up Latin American markets to the U.S.; rejected by Latin America due to fear of U.S. dominance and satisfaction with European market
Yellow journalism
created by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst; aimed to excite American imperialist interests; media bias, subjective representation of events
Jingoism
belligerent nationalism against other threatening nations
Secretary of State John Hay
ex-Lincoln secretary; worked to gain Open Door Notes' acceptance from the major powers
Open Door Policy
sought to eliminate spheres of influence and avoid European monopolies in China; unaccepted by the powers in mind
Spanish American War (1898)
McKinley reluctant; armed intervention to free Cuba from Spain; Roosevelt's "Rough Riders" made attack on Spanish at Cuba
Explosion of USS Maine
meant to provide evacuation opportunity for Americans in Cuba; internal accidental explosion blamed on Spanish mines, leading to Spanish¬ American War
Platt Amendment
U.S. would ensure that Cuba would be protected from European powers and maintain a place in Cuban affairs; provided coal and naval stations
US acquisitions
Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam: granted to U.S. at the end of Spanish-American War; Philippines were captured after treaty, and thus not part of spoils, but kept as territory with an inevitable movement for independence; Philippines and Hawaii steps toward Asia
Naval battle in Manila Bay, Philippines
Admiral Dewey defeated Spanish initially; American troops (aided by Aguinaldo's insurgents) captured Manila, leading to annexation
TR mediates Russo-Japanese War
secretly sponsored peace negotiations so as to prevent Japanese or Russian monopoly on Asia; concerned with safety of Philippines
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
U.S. felt it was its duty to "watch out" for the interests of other countries in the Western hemisphere; provided justification for invasions of Latin America.
Panama Canal
needed to protect new Pacific acquisitions, U.S. took over the project from the French after overcoming Clatyton¬ Bulwer Treaty (prohibited exclusive control of canal) with the Hay¬ Pauncefote Treaty
"Gentlemen's Agreement" (1908)
in response to Japanese discrimination in San Fran schools; Japanese to stop laborers into U.S., Californians forbidden to ban Japanese from public schools
Dollar Diplomacy"
government would protect America's foreign investments with any force needed; under president Taft
Moral Diplomacy
intervention in Mexican Revolution (Madero overthrew dictator Diaz) to overthrow Madero out of fear of property confiscation, General Huerta (seen as "brute" by Wilson, sought new leader) replaced Madero
Invasion of Mexico, Pancho Villa
Huerta's enemy, reluctantly supported by U.S.; U.S. sought Villa's submission due to terrorism, eventually assassinated; Wilson's policy highly unpopular
Lusitania
British passenger liner secretly carrying ammunition sunk by German u-boat, included American passengers
Zimmerman Note
intercepted by Britain; Germany proposed alliance with Mexico, using bribe of return of TX, NM, and AZ; Japan included in alliance
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Germany announced that it would sink all (including American) ships, attempt to involve U.S. in war
Creel Committee
Committee on Public Information; aimed to sell America and the world on Wilson's war goals; propaganda, censorship, "four-minute men" speeches, "Liberty Leagues" (spy on community)
War Industries Board
attempted to centralize production of war materials; ineffective due to American desire for laissez-faire government
Conscription policies
Selective Service Act to require men to register with few exceptions; women and blacks drafted/enlisted, highly successful
Herbert Hoover's Food Administration
relied on voluntary compliance (no formal laws), propaganda; high prices set on commodities to encourage production, Prohibition
Wilson's 14 points
public treaties, free trade, free seas, reduced armament burdens, anti-imperialism, independence to minorities, international organization
League of Nations
foreshadowed in 14 points, hoped to guarantee political independence and integrity of all countries
Great Migration
mass migration northward; mainly blacks migrating from the southern states into the north hoping for less discrimination
Lodge Reservations
14 formal amendments to the treaty for the League of Nations; preserved Monroe Doctrine, Congress desired to keep declaration of war to itself
Isolationism
avoided league of Nations, opposed Latin American involvement
Espionage Act and Sedition Act
fines and imprisonment for aiding the enemy or hindering U.S. military; forbade any form of criticism of the government and military
Schenk v. U.S.
court case, upheld constitutionality of Espionage Act; Congress right to limit free speech during times of war
"Red Scare" (1919)
anti-communist crusades due to fear of radicalism spurred by Bolshevik rebellion
Palmer Raids
Congressional support to raid houses of radicals believed to have connections to communism
"Red Summer," race riots (1919)
spurred by Great Migration, large-scale riots, lynchings, &c.
Nativism
severe immigration laws to discourage and discriminate against foreigners, believed to erode old-fashioned American values
Ku Klux Klan
spread quickly; opposed everything that was not White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) (and conservative), Stephenson's faults and jail sentence led to demise
National Origins Act (1924)
reduced quota, reduced numbers from eastern and southern Europe, Asians banned, Canadians and Latin Americans exempt
Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
prejudiced jury sentenced them to death, caused riots around the world, new trial denied
Scopes Trial
Darwinian (influenced by jazz age and new scientific ideas) against Fundamentalist (the Bible and Creationism); John Scopes convicted for teaching Darwinism (defended by Clarence Darrow); Scopes found guilty
Prohibition, rise of organized crime
supported by women and churches, instituted by Volstead Act, lacked enforcement; bootlegging and speakeasies, Al Capone and John Dillinger — gangsters and organized crime (casual breaking of the law)
Frederick W. Taylor, Scientific Management
efficient working methods to increase productivity; usually resulted in lower wages (hated by workers), power to managers
Henry Ford's assembly line
mass production of the Model-T, workers as potential consumers (raise wages), supported other industries and raised employment
Bruce Barton
The Man Nobody Knows, glorification of business, Jesus as a businessman, relationship between religion and manufacturing
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Alice Paul; shocked traditionalism, League of Women Voters supported; new organization of women who were now more independent
Jazz
dance music, slave spirituals adapted into improvisation and ragtime; jazz migrated along with blacks in the Great Migration
"Lost Generation"
new generation of writers outside of Protestantism, resentment of ideals betrayed by society; Fitzgerald (despised materialism, Great Gatsby), Hemingway (disillusionment, war experience), Lewis (against upper class — Babbit and Mainstreet), Faulkner (stream of consciousness), T.S. Eliot
Harlem Renaissance
authors included Langston Hughes, McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullet — praise and expression of black culture of the time
Marcus Garvey
started the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) — "Back to Africa" movement for racial pride and separatism; inspired self-confidence in blacks
Charles Lindbergh
considered a hero for his solo crossing of the Atlantic by plane
Washington Disarmament Conference (1921)
US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy to reduce naval tonnage and halt construction for 10 years; US and Japan to respect Pacific territorial holdings, Kellog-Briand Pact to "outlaw war"
Dawes Plan (1924)
to make German reparations from WWI more accessible to Germans; evacuation of troops from Germany, reorganization of the Reichsbank, and foreign loans
Conservative policies of Harding and Coolidge
lowering of income taxes for wealthy (trickle-down economics), refusal to create higher prices to help farmers (McNary-Haugen Bill)
Fordney-McCumber Tariff and Smoot-Hawley Tariff
1922 and 1930, raised tariffs extremely high on manufactured goods; benefited domestic manufacturers, but limited foreign trade
Teapot Dome scandal
Albert Fall accused of accepting bribes for access to government oil in Teapot Dome, Wyoming
Herbert Hoover, secretary of commerce
known as "wartime food czar;" created recreation policies and reintroduced leisure culture and conservation ethic to get Americans escaping the cities and improve tourism, etc.
Andrew Mellon, secretary of the treasury
introduced the "trickle-down" economics theory in order to promote business and increase money available for speculation
Farm crisis
agricultural depression as precursor to the depression; unheeded omen of problems in the economic structure (prices too low — too much supply for the demand)
Causes of the depression
rise in stock prices and speculation, decline of construction industry, mistaken "trickle-down" economics, reliance on credit
Stock market crash
(1929) stock prices fell drastically; without buyers, the stocks became essentially worthless; cause bank crashes, &c.
Hoover's policy of voluntarism
emphasized importance of private charities to help the depression
Hoovervilles
sets of cardboard box houses that epitomized the country's blame on Hoover for the cause of the Depression
Bonus Army
veterans from WWI sought their pensions before they were too old to use them; they were denied and were run out of Washington (violently, by MacArthur)
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
attempted to boost economy by making loans to banks and insurance companies, hoping to restart them
President Franklin Roosevelt
introduced his "New Deal," won election by a relative landslide (he was not Hoover, whom the public now did not trust)
New Deal
FDR's plan (although vague during the campaign) to restart the economy and pull America out of the Great Depression
"Brain trust"
FDR's inner circle of experts rather than just politicians in the cabinet
"Hundred days"
accomplished great number of relief, recovery, and reform efforts; sought practical solutions to the problems by experimentation
Emergency Banking Relief Act
four-day banking holiday to create controlled inflation, followed by reopening of sound banks, and reorganization of unsound banks
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) & National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), prevented extreme competition, labor management disputes, and over-production; federally coordinated consensus of business leaders (Hugh Johnson) to regulate businesses (wages, limits, working conditions)
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Part of "First" New Deal Program, subsidies to farmers to decrease production and thus increase prices
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), hydroelectric power to river valley; brought social and economic development to very poor area
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), employed young jobless men with government projects on work relief and environment
Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)
Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), provided more funds to state and local relief efforts
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), Harold Icicles, provided public construction projects
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), insured deposits < $5000, reassured American public of the worth of banks
Social Security Act of 1935 (SSA)
Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), used withheld money from payrolls to provide aid to the unemployed, industrial accident victims, and young mothers; principle of government responsibility for social welfare
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), Harry Hopkins; provide work for unemployed and construct public works, &c. through Emergency Relief Appropriation Act; much like Civil Works Administration
Wagner Act / National Labor Relations Act
Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), collective bargaining rights, closed shops permitted (where workers must join unions), outlawed anti-union tactics
Fair Labor Standards Act
Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), banned child labor, established minimum wage
Keynesian economics
philosophy that deficit spending during a depression would increase purchasing power and stimulate economy; FDR disagreed with the policy at first and borrowed money to cover deficits
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
halted sale of tribal lands, enabled tribes to regain unallocated lands; repealed Dawes Severalty Act of 1887; helped secure Indians' entry into New Deal associations; led by John Collier
Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor
first female cabinet member
Butler v. U.S.
court case, killed the AAA, although FDR insisted on continuing by creating smaller state-level AAAs
Schechter v. U.S
court case, unconstitutionalized the NRA due to delegation of legislative authority from Congress to executive
Court Packing
Judiciary Reorganization Bill; FDR's attempt to put in extra judges who would support him without doubt
Okies" and "Arkies"
Americans who were forced out of their homes in Oklahoma and Arkansas (respectively) due to the dust storms and drought known as the Dust Bowl
Deportations of Mexicans
nationalists against foreign non-English speaking workers (took jobs away from American men); encouraged to leave the U.S.
Critics of FDR
Father Charles Coughlin (benefited only wealthy people and corporations), Huey Long ("share our wealth"), Francis Townshend (Old Age Revolving Pension)
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
created by John L. Lewis for unskilled labor, organized "sit-down strike" against GM to work for recognition
Dorothea Lange
hired to photograph ordinary Americans experiencing the depression
Good Neighbor Policy
withdrawal of American troops from foreign nations (especially Latin America) to improve international relations and unite western hemisphere; Clark Memorandum (rebukes the "big stick"); peaceful resolution of Mexican oil fields
Isolationism in 1920s & 1930s
Americans concerned with economic depression; sought to avoid European involvement, no apparent immediate threats
Neutrality Acts, 1935-37
prohibited aiding of belligerent nations, banned civilian involvement; limited power of president during international war, built up armed forces
Quarantine Speech, 1937
FDR encouraged democracies to quarantine their opponents (economic embargos); criticized by isolationists
Neutrality Act, 1939
allowed sale of weaponry to democracies on "cash-and-carry" basis, avoided full-blown war; danger zones proclaimed; solved American unemployment crisis
Four Freedoms" speech
FDR asked for increased authority to aid Britain; freedom of speech/expression, of religion, from want, from fear; resulted in Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
President to offer military supplies to nations "vital to the defense of the US"; ended US neutrality (economic war against Germany); Hitler began to sink American ships (limited scale)
Pearl Harbor
Japanese bombing of ships in harbor; resulted in FDR's request for declaration of war against Japan; Germany and Italy responded with declarations of war
First American strategy in WWII
FDR and Churchill agreed to defeat Germany first rather than concentrate on Japan
Important WWII Battles
Midway (US Signal Corps, turning point of war in the Pacific), D-Day (Eisenhower's amphibious invasion of Normandy, led to depletion of German forces), Stalingrad (Russians defeated Germans, saved Moscow and Leningrad, turning point in Europe)
Japanese internment
fear of Japanese-Americans as traitors, sent off (by law) to internment camps; removal of deemed threats in military areas
Reasons for US to drop atomic bombs
risk of too many casualties and high costs for hand-to-hand combat/invasion, Japanese surrender unlikely
Yalta Conference (1945)
established world organization; Soviet Union pledged to allow democratic procedures in Eastern Europe; pledge broken, led to Cold War
Potsdam Conference (1945)
decided to punish war crimes, established program for de-Nazification of Germany
The Homefront
westward migration of workers (new economic opportunities, esp. aircraft industry), high rates of divorce and family/juvenile violence, women encouraged to work in factories, still held inferior to men
Rationing
Americans at home reminded to conserve materials in all aspects of life to support the military; resulted in saving up of money to cause economic boom after war
Rosie the Riveter
symbol of women workers during the war
John L. Lewis
through CIO, led three coal mine strikes (some of the very few strikes during the time period)
Bracero program
brought in Mexicans for temporary jobs, concentrated in southern CA, given extremely poor working conditions (as they were not American citizens)
Zoot Suit riots
racism riots against Mexican laborers (imported for jobs)
A. Philip Randolph and the March on Washington
led Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: threatened a siege on DC if FDR did not agree to end discrimination in military
Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)
prohibited discrimination in any government-related work; increased black employment
President Harry Truman
first president to show positive response to civil rights movement; worked heavily on keeping Soviet spread of communism in check
Jackie Robinson
first African-American in major league baseball
Desegregation of Armed Forces (1947)
banned racial discrimination in federal practices; To Secure These Rights called for desegregation, anti-lynching, end of poll taxes
Dixiecrats, 1948
fought for old Southern way of life (states' rights), attempted to gain higher standing within Democratic party; aimed to deny Truman enough electoral votes to avoid his reelection by nominating Strom Thurmond (SC governor)
Fair Deal
preservation of New Deal, attempt at additions; raised minimum wage, public housing, old-age insurance extension, agricultural price supports (lowering of farm price)
George Kennan
US ambassador to Russia, notified Truman of Soviet ambitions to expand empire and overthrow other political forces; established concern for Soviet policy in Eastern Europe, Germany, and the Middle East
Truman Doctrine
support people oppressed by communism and non-democratic governments; worked with democratic governments in Greece, Turkey, and Israel
Marshall Plan
US provided financial assistance to recover economies in Europe; aimed towards anti-communist governments in France, Italy, and Germany; Eastern European nations prohibited from receiving help from US
Berlin Airlift
Soviets cut Berlin off from the rest of Germany by blockade; US organized airlift to drop supplies into Britain; blockade lifted in May 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
response to Berlin crisis, warned Moscow that threats would be answered with force; Warsaw Pact formed by Soviets in response
Soviet atomic bomb
September 1949, US no longer held monopoly; two atomic powers
China turns communist
Mao Zedong (communist) defeated nationalist forces of Kai-Shek (supported by US); seen as defeat for US, not officially fully recognized until 1973
Korean War
Soviet-aided North Korea attack on South Korea; MacArthur named general on behalf of UN (excluded Russia), US supplied majority of troops; recapture of South Korea and suppression of North forces to northern border; introduction of Chinese, MacArthur fired for suggestion to use nuclear weapons on China; nuclear incentives for peace negotiations
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican, popular hero of WWII; "dynamic conservatism" as a middle ground btw. Rep. and Dem.; Interstate Highway System (ulterior motive of weapons transportation); St. Lawrence Seaway opened Great Lakes to Atlantic Ocean via locks; Depts. Of Health, Education, and Welfare to oversee New Deal programs
Conformity in the 1950s
strong patriotism and need to conform to try to avoid blame during red scare, non-churchgoers, unmarried, and critics suspected as communists
Suburbia
middle class; white flight from urban areas due to black migration; government supported insurance for homeowners and builders
"Baby Boom"
unprecedented sudden growth spurt of American population (especially urban and suburban areas)
GI Bill of Rights
government ensured readjustment rights to GIs after WWI unrest, loans to veterans for higher education and mortgages (contributed to economic prosperity)
Consumerism
Americans could now spend what they had been told to save during the war (disposable income); increased purchasing of luxury items
"Affluent Society"
economic prosperity of American society following WWII; doubling of national income, jobs to women, defense industry's support of economy
Non-conformity
Elvis Presley, Marilyn Monroe, James Dean, Beatniks — rebelled against conservative conformity of the rest of the country (esp. targeted youth)
Rock `n' Roll
influence of African-American blues, music of the younger generation (gap between them and their parents)
David Riesman
(The Lonely Crowd) "outer directed" Americans conforming to peer pressure on moral and social issues, rather than independently thinking on morals
Richard Nixon, Alger Hiss
Nixon led movement to Hiss's indictment; convicted of perjury, Nixon gained national prominence
McCarthyism
attacked people for being communist by association and unsubstantiated claims, against Truman, Marshall, and Ike; downfall came with attack on the military (condemned by Senate); led hysteria of the red scare
Domino theory
one country that falls into communism will cause surrounding nations to also fall "like dominos"; spurred by Southeast Asia regimes (esp. Vietnam)
Community on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
attacked public figures (Hollywood, New-Dealers, liberals) to root out communist spies
Truman's Loyalty Program
Truman tested for communist alliances within government; government employees prohibited from taking part in remotely-communist activities
Rosenbergs
executed for leaking atomic secrets to Soviets, avowed communists
John Foster Dulles
secretary of state, policy to liberate captive people in Eastern Europe by political pressure and propaganda; massive retaliation to counter SovietlChinese aggression with nuclear weapons; brinksmanship to be persistent to solve crises (even to the extent of war)
CIA overthrow of Iran (1953)
installed Shah as dictator, overthrew Moussadegh (communist interests), in order to resist nationalization British oil holdings
CIA overthrow of Guatemala (1954)
overthrew Pres. Guzman after he nationalized American fruit fields and accepted arms from USSR (communist sympathies)
Sputnik
caused American hysteria (1957), fear that Soviets were technologically superior; led Ike to order more rigorous education program to rival Soviets (National Defense Education Act)
National Aeronautics Space Agency (NASA)
launched in 1958 by Ike; successful launch of American satellite (Explorer I); massive arms builup
U-2 Incident
American U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR (Ike: "for national security); US suspended further flights, Krushchev demanded apology (refused)
Ike's Farewell Speech
warned of dangerous military-industrial complex (newly-found power of the military to affect the path of democracy)
AFL-CIO (1955)
unemployment jitters; expelled Teamster union (resorted to gangsterism); height of power of workers' unions
US economy since WWII (service economy)
highest peacetime deficit in US history (due to lower tax rates for high-income taxpayers, spent too much money attempting to reduce price supports to farmers)
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
blacks denied admission to all-white school; overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, negating "separate but equal", ordered integration of schools as soon as possible; white southerners protested (refused to attend integrated schools)
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
Parks arrested for refusing to give up bus seat to white man, African American leaders called for city-wide boycott of bus system (lasted almost 400 days); Supreme Court ruled segregated buses unconstitutional
Martin Luther King Jr., Southern Christian Leadership Conference
led boycott, became leader of civil rights movement; urged nonviolent resistance (cf. tactics of Ghandi);
Little Rock Crisis (1957)
Ike forced to send National Guard to escort black children to school to quell riots and resistance (first time since Reconstruction that troops used in the south to enforce Constitution); resistance by white community (private schools)
Greensboro sit-in (1960)
nonviolent protest to college students (NC) being refused lunch service; part of "sit-in" movement to integrate all aspects of life (hotels, entertainment, &c.)
Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960
commission on civil rights to attempt to guarantee the ballot to blacks; showed government's changing views of race relations
Election of 1960
Kennedy vs. Nixon, Kennedy (due to televised charisma) won over Nixon (pale and nervous)
President John F. Kennedy
second youngest president, entered presidency as tensions of the Cold War increased; unable to get major initiatives through Congress due to conservative bloc; tax cuts (economic stimulation); reluctantly gets involved in civil rights; emphasizes Space Race (man on the moon)
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
effects of pesticides on the environment; changed way Americans viewed their impact on nature
Berlin Wall
due to threat of nuclear war, Soviets erected wall to separate East Berlin from West Berlin (end exodus of intellect to west); symbol of communist denial of freedom
Peace Corps
created in 1961 as example of liberal anticommunism in third world countries; "reform-minded missionaries of democracy"
Alliance for Progress (Marshall Plan of Latin America)
Americans feared Soviet infiltration into Latin America, placed secret police and military forces to prevent it
Bay of Pigs invasion
CIA attempt to institute Cuban support to overthrow Castro; cover-up uncovered, became representation of Cuban resistance to American aggression
Cuban Missile Crisis
storage of Soviet missiles in Cuba (threat of nuclear war); Krushchev demanded that US never invade Cuba and remove forces from Turkey; mutual compliance with each other's demands
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
prohibited testing of nuclear bombs above ground to slow the nuclear arms race and the release of nuclear fallout into the atmosphere
Freedom Riders (Congress of Racial Equality - CORE)
interracial group of protestors who aimed to dramatize the violations of the call for desegregation; harsh treatment by southern whites provoked Kennedy to more strictly enforce desegregation
James Meredith
black veteran escorted to be enrolled in Univ. of Miss. by military (school reluctant, cf. Little Rock Nine)
March on Birmingham
King hosted myriad nonviolent protesting activities to fill jail with protestors, Bill Connor (police commissioner) began violent resistance to protestors
March on Washington, "I have a dream"
25,000 people (including whites) convened for political rally, MLK's speech to historical event; attempted to push civil rights bill through Congress
Assassination of JFK, Warren Commission
Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald (hated his anti-Cuban policies); LBJ instituted Warren Commission to investigate assassination (headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren)
President Lyndon B. Johnson
dealt with Vietnam War, "Great Society" program for improvement of American society, antipoverty and anti-discrimination programs
"Great Society"
LBJ's flood of proposals to Congress for the beautification and amelioration of American society (War on Poverty, Medicare, public education spending, public television (PBS), National Endowments for the Humanities and Arts (NEH, NEA))
Affirmative Action
sets of programs geared towards minorities and oft-discriminated populations
Immigration Act of 1965
abolished national origins quotas, dramatically increased immigration (especially from Asia and Latin America)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
banned racial discrimination and segregation (public), bias by federal government; enforced by Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Voting Rights Act of 1965
prohibited use of any devices (e.g., literacy tests) to deny the right to vote and enforced black suffrage rights
Forced busing
due to parents unhappy with encouraged segregation of schools, Supreme Court instituted forced busing policies (using school buses as a method of integration)
Malcolm X, Nation of Islam
Black Muslim worked to raise black spirits and pride (cf. Marcus Garvey); emphasized black institutions rather than mere desegregation, blacks to gain freedom at any cost
Black Power, Stokely Carmichael
black rights leader, heavily influenced by Malcolm X (advocated black separatism rather than integration)
Black Panther Party
another black separatist movement; known for peaceful demonstrations, but more for police shootouts
Gains for women
rejection of negative portrayals of women (language, entertainment), increased quality and use of education, more job opportunities, acceptance into military
National Organization of Women
founded by Betty Friedan, Bella Abzug, and Aileen Hernandez; lobbied for equal opportunity where the EEOC was lacking (gender discrimination); lawsuits and mobilization of public opinion
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
denounced the "housewife trap" which caused educated women to hold even themselves inferior to men
Roe v. Wade
court case, unconstitutionalized all state laws prohibiting women's rights to have an abortion performed during the first trimester of pregnancy
Cesar Chavez, United Farm Workers
used nonviolent protest and boycott to achieve better working conditions for farmers (esp. Mexican-Americans)
Vietnam War
United States aided South Vietnam in its war of power struggle against North Vietnam, the Vietcong, USSR, and China
Ngo Dinh Diem
Catholic communist autocrat of Vietnam, assassinated (with aid of US)
Ho Chi Minh
contending communist politician in Vietnam, had more popularity than Diem, took power upon Diem's death
Vietcong
National Liberation Front, guerilla militia from south Vietnam fighting alongside the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Congress authorized LBJ to repel and prevent aggression against US troops in Vietnam, used as a blank check (perhaps too much, caused protests)
Tet Offensive (1968)
NLF attacked numerous South Vietnamese cities and American embassies, eventually repulsed; spoiled LBJ's record to reelection, resulted in massive protests in US to end the war; atrocities such that war could only end in stalemate
Impact of LBJ's Vietnam decision on 1968 election
left primary open to Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy, both promising to end the controversial war
"New Left" (free speech movement)
youth activists (often liberal arts students) spoke out against Vietnam War, supported widespread liberalization
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
part of the New Left that envisioned "participatory democracy" (individuals control life-affecting decisions), end materialism, militarism, and racism; inspired by young black activists
Andy Warhol
pop art, mass production of art by screening
Warren Court
desegregation (Brown v. Board of Ed), rights of the accused (Miranda v. Arizona), voting reforms (Wesberry v. Sanders, Reynolds v. Sims, Katzenbach v Morgan)
1968 as "the year of shocks"
Tet Offensive in Vietnam, assassination of MLK and Robert Kennedy (presidential candidate), Riot of Democratic National Convention (Chicago police beat antiwar protestors), Black Panthers
1968 Presidential Election
George Wallace vs. Nixon vs. Humphrey; very narrow popular vote triumph to Nixon (although he had clear majority of electoral votes)
Richard Nixon (R)
"Southern Strategy" lured many southern Democrats to the Republican party (esp. due to southern opposition to Civil Rights Act of 1964)
George Wallace, American
appealed to many conservatives, especially southerners (opposed massive protests and integration)
Vietnamization
part of Nixon's tri-faceted plan to honorably remove troops from Vietnam; wean the South Vietnamese off of American support, gradually reducing number of American troops present
Bombing and invasion of Cambodia
another part of Nixon's out-of-Vietnam plan, destroy supply routes to North Vietnam through Cambodia
Kent State Protest
Kent State University students protesting against invasion of Cambodia, not allowed to demonstrate, violence (murder) caused by guardsmen
"Silent Majority"
speech symbolized polarization between conservatives and liberals
Conservative backlash against liberalism
conservatives like Reagan benefited from denouncing the New Left and excessive antiwar protests; gave him political prominence
Detente, realpolitik
detente achieved with USSR and China by withdrawal from Vietnam; realpolitik shed the use of doctrines and policies, instead using China and USSR in alternative ways to achieve other goals (pitting China and USSR against each other, as communist nations)
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I)
Nixon agreed with USSR to achieve nuclear equality rather than the superiority that threatened the destruction of the world; further reduced tensions between the two countries
New Federalism
Nixon's domestic policy; federal revenues shared with states (revenue sharing), minimum income proposed
Watergate Scandal
despite near-guaranteed second term, campaign workers burglarized Democratic offices, cover-up unsuccessful, resigned to avoid impeachment
Energy Crisis, OPEC
increased already high rate of inflation by quadrupling the price of crude oil
Stagflation
Ford's and Carter's presidencies experienced a recession and inflation simultaneously, solved by Keynesian economics
President Jimmy Carter
Panama Canal Treaty, diplomacy with China, end of recognition of Taiwan; little accomplished domestically due to conservative opposition, foreign policy more successful; Washington outsider, Experienced high interest rates, inflation, increased government spending, rising unemployment, decreased union membership
Humanitarian diplomacy
fought for human rights in Africa, Panama Canal returned to Panama, relations with China resolved
Camp David Accords
(peace btw Egypt and Israel) followed years of tension, Israel would leave newly acquired lands from war, Egypt would respect Israel's other land claims; accords not completely followed, Sadat (Egypt) assassinated
Iran Hostage Crisis, 1979
American hostages taken by US hating Shiites upon Shah's flight from uprising, botched rescue attempts
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
despite CIA-sponsored Soviet resistance, Afghanistan taken by Soviet Union; ended detente between USSR and US
Deregulation
drastic cutbacks in regulation of business by the federal government (banks, transportation, communications
Election of 1980
decisive victory to Reagan due to his appeal over Carter (now unpopular due to lack of success in the presidency
President Ronald Reagan
offered a New Deal (reminiscent of FDR) of smaller government, reduced taxes, and free enterprise; Washington outsider
Conservatism
belief in minimal government so as to allow the people their own free reign, lower taxes to stimulate economy, &c.
Religious Right
political action for religion justified by decreased presence of religion in society; Pat Robertson's Christian Coalition to expand national influence
Reaganomics
capitalism would become productive when uninhibited by taxes and regulation
Supply-side economics, tax cuts
tax cuts to increase population spending (help economy), drastic cutting back on government programs due to lack of funds
Nicaraguan Contras
guerilla army sponsored by CIA to attack procommunist revolutionaries in Nicaragua; fear of another Vietnam
"Evil Empire" speech, "Star Wars"
Reagan called the Soviet Union an "evil empire"; Korean passenger plane shot down near Moscow (increased anti-Soviet rhetoric); Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) used space-based lasers as defense from nuclear attack
Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet leader undergoing tensions on superpower and domestic level
Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987)
Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove and destroy nuclear weapons from Eastern and Western Europe; eased international tension and allowed Soviet domestic reforms to take place
Fall of communism in Eastern Europe (1989)
Gorbachev announced Soviet withdrawal of power from all of Eastern Europe, including Berlin (wall torn down, free movement, &c.)
Fall of Soviet Union (1991)
Gorbachev decreased nuclear arsenals, Communist Party lost power, Boris Yeltsin (president of Russian Republic) led Muscovites to take control
"Graying of America"
economic recession (collapse of savings-and-loan industry, increasing deficit due to Reagan tax cuts, retail decreased, higher crime rate)
Economic transition
to service economy in late 20 century (end of industrialism) - higher focus on services (esp. education) rather than material products
Gulf War, "Operation Desert Storm" (1991)
Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait despite peace treaty and refusal to abandon Iraqi occupation
1992 Election
Bush vs. Clinton vs. Perot; focus on stagnancy of economy and problems of middle class (Clinton)
President Bill Clinton
scholarly, welfare-reform, "Contract with America," impeachment over Monica Lewinski Scandal, War in Kosovo
Gays in the military
ended exclusion of homosexuals from military; due to controversy, compromise of "don't ask, don't tell" instituted
North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA (1994)
established free trade zone between Canada, United States and Mexico, net gain in jobs due to opening of Mexican markets
"Contract with America" (1994)
Newt Gingrich (Republican congressman) planned for success of Republican party in upcoming election by pledging tax cuts, congressional term limits, tougher crime laws, balanced budget amendment, popular reforms &c.
Clinton impeachment (1997)
helped approval ratings, not removed from office despite all the efforts of Republican congressmen
Bush v. Gore (2000)
Gore promising with experience, Bush appealing by family influence and plans for presidency (tax cuts, education reform, defense, &c.)
9/11 Terrorist Attacks on NYC & DC (2001)
planes hijacked by terrorists for destruction; blame pinned on Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, sought out in attempt to completely destroy terrorism
Invasion of Afghanistan (2002)
overthrow of the Taliban, in search of bin Laden
Invasion of Iraq, removal of Saddam Hussein, 2003
Iran, Iraq, and North Korea designated as the "axis of evil," institution of democratic government in Iraq to replace Hussein's dictatorship (return to spread and protection of democracy throughout the world, moving beyond containment of communism)
Citizen Genet
Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine