Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
Ethics Exam 1
Terms in this set (28)
What is philosophy's subject matter?
Philosophy's subject matter is deep fundamental ideas, questions, issues, etc
What is philosophy's method?
Its method is logically rigorous analysis and argument.
Explain how philosophy's subject matter and method help to distinguish it from other academic fields, and from what we sometimes call our "philosophies" of life, business, etc?
Other academic fields use other methods such as biology which uses the scientific method to study living things. Philosophy differs because of the deep fundamental questions that are asked and that the arguments that are stated can be backed up, or not. In other fields, there are sometimes various acceptable methods. In philosophy, one can use a sound argument to support their argument. Without a sound argument, their statements are not as believable.
How does this apply to moral philosophy?
Moral philosophy is really the same thing as philosophy but it addresses its concern on individuals, societies, cultures, etc. We take various theories and opinions and really criticize them to see whether or not we should accept them.
How does a philosopher define the term argument?
An argument can be defined as a set of statements with a conclusion supported by one or more premises.
What two qualities make an argument valuable?
The two qualities that make an argument valuable are: each of their premises is true and their conclusions follow from their premises.
What does it mean to say an argument is valid? Give an example.
A valid argument states that in an argument, if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true as well.
What does it mean to say an argument is sound? Give an example.
A sound argument is an argument that is both valid and has all true premises; it guarantees the truth of its conclusion.
What does it mean to say an argument is strong? Give an example.
A strong argument is an argument where, if the premises are true, the conclusion is likely to be true as well.
"All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal."
Valid and sound
"All people from Georgia are famous. Jimmy Carter is from Georgia. Therefore, Jimmy Carter is famous."
Valid and unsound
"The earth has one moon. John F. Kennedy was assassinated. Therefore, snow is white."
Invalid and thus unsound
What is subjective matter?
A subjective matter differs from person to person. A few good examples of this are taste of food and beauty. These are determined by an individual's feelings, beliefs, attitudes, etc. Reasoned arguments cannot settle disputes about subjective issues.
What is objective matter?
-Something can be an objective matter without us knowing whether it is true or false.
-. An objective matter is universally accepted or believed. It is determined by objective reality such as the shape of the planet or the number of moons we have. People can make mistakes about objective issues but the disputes about objective issues can be settled with reasoned arguments.
What is relative matter?
A relative matter is determined by the society such as fashion or arranged marriages. Cultures can never be mistaken about relative issues.
What does the moral skeptic claim?
Moral skepticism claims that moral standards are not objective.
What two forms of moral skepticism have we studied so far and what does each claim?
The two forms are ethical relativism and ethical subjectivism. In ethical relativism, moral standards are not objective, but determined by a society. If a society believes that something is right for that society, then it is right for that society. An example of this could be arranged marriages. Ethical subjectivism states that moral standards are not objective, but determined by individuals. If an individual believes that something is right for them, then it is right for them. An example of this could be abortion.
What do the opponents of moral skepticism, the moral objectivists, claim?
Moral objectivism claims that moral standards are objective.
What are the two forms of objectivism that we have studied so far?
The two forms are moral absolutism and qualified objectivism.
What is moral absolutism?
Moral absolutism states that there is one correct moral code that applies to all people at all times in all societies. A good example of this could be how societies view murder or how they agree to hold a ceremony for the deceased.
What is qualified objectivism?
Qualified objectivism denies universal or absolute moral rules, but still claims that qualified moral rules are objective. They do not need to know if the claims are correct or not, just that they are objective. An example of this would be justifying a lie in a certain scenario and not justifying a lie in another scenario.
What is cultural relativism?
Cultural relativism states that different societies can have different and sometimes incompatible beliefs about morality. This is a scientific position with a great deal of evidence to support it such as anthropology.
What is ethical relativism?
Ethical Relativism states that moral standards are not objective, but determined by society. This is a philosophical position with questionable support.
How is one used to support the other in the cultural differences argument? Why does this argument fail?
Rachels says in the cultural differences argument that cultural relativism is used as a premise to support ethical relativism. He states "different societies have different, incompatible beliefs about morality. Therefore, moral standards are determined by society, and there is no objective truth in ethics."
What are some criticisms of ethical relativism?
Some criticisms of ethical relativism are:
a. If it's true, we can never criticize a culture
b. Can't say other societies have customs that are morally inferior to our own
c. The idea of moral progress is called into doubt- you cannot praise a culture
d. Ex)Slavery, Nazis
How does Rachels argue that cultural disagreement about ethics might not be as widespread as it seems?
7. Rachels argues that cultural disagreement about ethics is not as widespread as it seems by talking about what some of the cultures have in common. The degree of the disagreement between cultures can be overstated. For example, Rachels uses the funeral practices of two cultures to state this. The Callations consumed the dead bodies and the Greeks burned the dead bodies. They disagreed but they still agreed about performing a ritual for the dead. These are values that are shared by all cultures. There may be values that are shared by all cultures. Disagreements mask deeper agreements.
What is simple subjectivism?
Simple subjectivism is when the individual determines right and wrong by using their feelings. For example, if someone feels cheating is morally right, then they will approve of cheating and vice versa.
What are the criticism that we raise against simple subjectivism?
Some criticisms of simple subjectivism are:
a. If ethical subjectivism is true, more of us can be mistaken about our moral judgement.
b. If ethical subjectivism is true, reason has no place in ethics.
c. The individual differences argument is invalid.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
PHIL2030 - Chapter 19 Ethical Relativism
Ethics Final Fall 2016
Ethics chap 19
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ethics Exam 2
Organizational Behavior Test 2
Org Behavior Quiz 1
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Micro 12- Other gram negative bacteria
Rigos - Torts - Intentional Torts
microbial nutrition and metabolism
Milady chapter 20