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70 terms

Pathophysiology Chapters 4&5

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What is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide?
lung cancer
Smoking and chewing tobacco are the leading causes of ____ cancer.
head and neck
Exposure to asbestos increases the risk for cancer of the membranes of many internal organs and is commonly known as ____.
mesothelioma
Surgical treatments for breast cancer include mastectomy and ____.
lumpectomy
Which of the following are risk factors for ovarian cancer?
Polycystic ovary disease
Endometriosis
History of pelvic inflammatory disease
A definitive diagnosis of cancer is made pending the results of a(n) ____.
biopsy
Life expectancy for men who are surgical candidates for prostate cancer is ____.
10 years
The risk for testicular cancer is greatest in men ____ years of age.
30-40
Greater than 90% of esophageal cancer is attributed to ____.
Inadequate intake of fresh fruits and vegetables
Alcohol use
Tobacco use
The most important risk for bladder cancer in approximately 65% of males and 30% of females is ____.
Cigarette smoking
The most common symptom of bladder cancer is ____.
hematuria
Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are cancers of ____ tissue.
lymph
A distinguishing feature between Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the presence of ____.
Reed-Sternberg cells
Massive proliferation of immature forms of white blood cells occurs in ____.
Leukemia
Malignant proliferation of pigment-producing cells occurs in ____.
malignant melanoma
The most common childhood cancer is ____.
leukemia
Cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that consists of immature embryonic like cells is known as a ____.
neuroblastoma
The leading risk factor for prostate cancer is ____.
age
The majority of melanoma appear on the ____ in men and on the ____ in women.
Back, Legs
Proliferation of abnormal whit blood cells occurs in ____.
leukemia
A renal tumor that is composed of cells that resemble embryonic glomeruli is known as ____.
Wilms' tumor
Cancer that occurs on the surface of bone is known as a(n) ____.
osteosarcoma
The prognosis and treatment of cancer is affected by ____.
cancer stage
chronic disease
nutrition
Beginning at the age of 50 years the American Cancer Society recommends a(n) ____ or ____ every 5 years for the detection of cancer in the colon or rectum in asymptomatic individuals.
fecal occult blood, sigmoidoscopy
A cancer-related checkup is recommended every ____ year(s) by the American Cancer Society for individuals age 20-39 years.
3
Neoplasia means ____.
new growth
The development of cancer is termed ____.
carcinogenesis
Population-based studies of cancer rates are used to characterize the ____ of cancer.
epidemiology
Hepatitis B and C are common causes of ____ cancer.
liver
Hilicobacter pylori infection is associated with ____ cancer.
stomach
What kind of trait tends to appear in each generation?
dominant
Which of the following is true of sex-linked traits?
normally show up in males
Accumulation of excess phenylalanine causes ____.
PKU
Which of the following is NOT considered a genetic disease?
multiple sclerosis
A chart showing a family genetic background is called a ____.
pedigree
Klinefelter's syndrome occurs in ____.
males
Down syndrome is the result of ____.
trisomy 21
Albinism is the lack of the production of ____.
melanin
The scientific study of inheritance is called ____.
genetics
The 22 pairs of matched chromosomes are called ____.
autosomes
What replicating molecule is found in the cell nucleus?
DNA
A matching set of genes for a given trait is called ____.
homozygous
Eggs and sperms are called ____.
gametes
Sex-linked implies ____.
X chromosome
Huntington's chorea is ____.
autosomal dominant
What drug group may be used to reduce familial hypercholesterolemia?
statins
What genetic disease affects about 10% of the black population?
sicle cell anemia
What culture is particularly impacted with Tay-Sachs disease?
European Jews (Ashkenazi)
What tropical disease has been associated with sickle cell trait?
malaria
Which of the following is true of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy?
is a sex-linked disease
Which of the following is true of red-green color blindness?
is sex-linked
Fragile X disorder tends to result in ____.
mental impairment
Tay-Sachs disease may be prevented by ____.
genetic counseling
What disorder leaves the person vulnerable to bleeding episodes?
hemophilia
Polydactly suggests ____.
extra fingers or toes
Those born with both testes and ovaries are known as ____.
hermaphroditic
What common procedure helps determine the gender of a fetus?
amniocentesis
Which statement is TRUE?
Males normally suffer sex-linked disorders
What autosomal dominant disease causes atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease?
familial hypercholesterolemia
After smoking, diet and ____ is the next largest contributor to cancer deaths.
obesity
Symptoms of lung cancer include wheezing, stridor or a high pitch during respiration, hoarseness, and ____ or difficulty speaking.
dysphagia
The ____ for the development of breast cancer include age, female gender, and personal family history of breast cancer.
risk factor
Cancers of the colon and rectum are most common in ____ societies where consumption of high fats, refined carbohydrates, and animal proteins, combined with low physical activity, is common.
western
Enlargement of the liver, also known as ____, may be a sign of liver cancer.
hepatomegaly
Molecular and epidemiological studies has shown that certain infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) types are central to the development of ____ cancer.
cervical
The most common sign of uterine cancer is ____, or uterine bleeding, especially after menopause.
metrorragia
The X and Y chromosomes are called ____ chromosomes.
sex
Hemophilia is a(n) ____ trait.
sex-linked
An individual without skin pigment would be a(n) ____.
albinio
Cancer-causing genes are known as ____.
oncogenes