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Academics generally agree that the Gothic style of architecture began in 1140 with the construction of the choir of ____.

St. Denis

Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord, from the bronze doors of the Ottonian St. Michael's, is notable because it ____.

represents the first sculpture cast in one piece since the fall of Rome

The Aeron Chair is a(n) ____ design considered to be the Porsche of office chairs.


African masks have always varied widely in style from tribe to tribe, but ____ art was heavily influenced by simple, abstract, geometric examples such as the Etoumba mask.

Pablo Picasso's

After his death, the cremated remains of Buddha (formerly Siddhartha) were supposedly placed in eight different ____, or places of worship and devotion for his followers.


After Martin Luther's Reformation, Dutch artists painted scenes of daily life, whereas Flemish artists ____.

continued painting religious and mythological scenes as in Baroque Italy

Aimed at challenging traditional aesthetics, ethics, morality, and even good taste, ____ may be best known for his infamous installation, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living.

Damien Hirst

Alexander Archipenko's Walking Woman displays an important innovation in Cubist sculpture: the use of ____

void space as solid form

Alice Neel is best known for her ____ portraits, a collection of souls handpicked from all strata of society.

stark, unflinchingly realistic

All of Rembrandt's paintings, drawings, and prints seem to focus on ____.

introspection and psychological situations

All of the following describe Hinduism except that ____.

the human spirit is not reborn after death

"All painting is composed of line and color. Line and color are the essence of painting. Hence they must be freed from their bondage to the imitation of nature and allowed to exist for themselves." An example of a painting this artist is referring to is ____.

Piet Mondrian's Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow

Along with their interest in psychoanalysis, the Surrealists also incorporated some of the attitudes and techniques of the ____ movements.

Dada and Fantastic art

Although much Roman art is stylistically derived from Greece, portrait sculptures like Head of a Roman are notable for their incredible ____, made possible by ____.

realism; wax death masks

Although no female artists are recorded in Greek art, the vase called Women Working Wool on a Loom is evidence that ____ was an important art form for women.


Although the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris was begun in the Early Gothic period, later modifications led to High Gothic style developments such as the ____.

elimination of the triforium and use of flying buttresses

Although the Mayans, Incas, and Aztecs of Meso-America all made great advances in their civilizations prior to the arrival of the Spanish, they also all shared the practice of ____.

human sacrifice

The American photographer ____ first supported the development of abstract art in America by exhibiting modern European works alongside American art in his ____.

Alfred Stieglitz; 291 Gallery

The ancient Greeks considered themselves to be the center of the universe or "the measure of all things," a concept known as ____.


Anselm Keifer's paintings and monumental sculpture all reflect the heavy weight of his consciousness as a ____.


Appropriation artist Vik Muniz collected ____ from a neighborhood in ____ for his Sisyphus, after Titian.

junk; Rio de Janeiro

Architect Benjamin Latrobe was responsible for which of the following designs?

the design for the Oval Office

The art and architecture of the Mycenaean civilization reflects a preoccupation with ____ because, unlike Crete, it lacked the natural defense of a surrounding sea.

arms and fortification

The artists who began the Die Brücke movement chose that name because ____.

they saw their movement as bridging a number of disparate styles

The art produced by the people of the Caribbean and Latin America tends to reflect all of the following themes except ____.

affection for the colonizing country

Art works that utilize closely related families of color seem ____.

harmonious and soothing

As depicted in Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe, Édouard Manet utilized all but one of the following "modern" painting techniques:

He modeled his figures using chiaroscuro.

As evidenced in The Birth of Venus, the Medici family protégé Sandro Botticelli loved, above all else, to paint ____.

mythological themes

As evidenced in the realistic poses and proportions of The Good Shepherd in the Catacomb of Saints Pietro and Marcellino, Early Christians shared the art and culture but not the religion of ____.


"Asexual, dressed in Mao suits, their glaze glassy and dismal" describes which of the artworks below?

Zhang Xiaogang's Big Family

As is often the case in ethnographic art, the decorations on the Kwakiutl headdress from British Columbia reflects designs similar to those found in ____.

tattooing and body decoration

As seen in the Processional Frieze from the royal audience hall in Persepolis, Persian art is characterized by a combination of stylized floral motifs and ____.

fleshy, well rounded human figures more deeply carved than Assyrian relief sculpture

As seen in Tintoretto's The Last Supper, his ____ anticipate(s) the Baroque style.

loose brushwork and dramatic white spotlighting

As the Gothic period progressed, all of the following architectural innovations occurred except ____.

exterior walls appeared heavier

As was typical in Northern Renaissance paintings, the setting of Robert Campin's Merode Altarpiece is ____.

a contemporary Flemish home

Auguste Rodin's The Burghers of Calais is considered a groundbreaking Impressionist sculpture because of its ____.

intense realism and highly textured surfaces that capture the play of light

Baciccio's Triumph of the Sacred Name of Jesus in Il Gesu in Rome achieves a trompe l'oeil effect by combining painted figures with ____.

white stucco modeled sculptures and a gilded stucco ceiling

Baghdad born Zaha Hadid is a ____ architect who describes her design for the Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Center as ____.

deconstructivist: "a biological analogy"

The Baroque era was born in ____, at least in part as a reaction to the spread of Protestantism resulting from the ____.

Rome; Reformation

Because Cimabue and Giotto's paintings combine Late Gothic and Early Renaissance styles, they are classified as ____.


Because the Great Pyramids were plundered so badly by grave robbers, a new type of architecture known as ____ developed during Middle Kingdom in Egypt.

rock-cut tombs

Before the Baroque period ended, ____ began to replace Rome as the center of the art world and ____ was the principal exponent of its official style.

France; Nicolas Poussin

The botanical whimsies of ____ are considered some of the finest examples of Art Nouveau glass.


Bridging the boundaries between fine art and craft, Betty Woodman sees the ____ as a cultural common denominator.


British artist Sarah Lucas' The Fag Show was inspired by ____.

her conquest of a tobacco addiction

British sculptor Henry Moore had a long and prolific career but is primarily renowned today for his ____.

abstract, biomorphic bronze reclining figures

By the 1970s, some architectural historians began to argue that Modernist steel-cage rectangular solids were threatening to ____.

bury the nation's cities in boredom

The cathedral of Florence features all of the characteristics below except ____.

twin bell towers

Ceramic glazing dates back to around 3000 B.C.E. and has been found on ____.

tomb tiles of the Egyptian King Menes

Cheryl Ann Thomas's contemporary work Relic130 is best categorized as ____.


Chinese ceramics, like the blue and white Ming Dynasty vase, were often ____, meaning that the decoration was molded or incised beneath rather than on top of the glaze


The circles, squares, patterning, and rigid wedge-shaped torsos depicted on the Dipylon Vase indicate that it is a fine example of the ____ period of Greek art.


The colors opposite each other on the color wheel are ____.


The Colosseum in Rome consists of two back-to-back ____ and a combination of ____ columns that produce a sense of lightness proceeding from bottom to top tier.

amphitheaters; Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian

____ compositions, such as Picasso's The Bottle of Suze, use a technique known as ____ to emphasize the form of the object and its construction rather than its disintegration.

Synthetic Cubist; collage

Considered a true Renaissance man, ____ excelled in engineering, the natural sciences, anatomy, music, and technological prototypes, not to mention creating some of the world's best loved paintings.

Leonardo da Vinci

Contemporary artist Ed Rossbach's wall hanging is made from construction paper and woven in such a way that the image of a ____ emerges from the background.


The contrast of textures and fluidity and spontaneity of movement found in the Parthenon's pediment grouping called The Three Goddesses is typical of the ____ style.


Cubism was heavily influenced by Paul Cézanne in all but one of the following ways:

intense interest in native African and Iberian sculpture

Designed by architect ____, the Chicago Spire has become the tallest structure in North America.

Santiago Calatrava

The ____ developed the process of glass blowing and thus made ____ commonplace.

Romans; glass containers

The Die Brücke painter Emil Nolde painted Dance Around the Golden Calf, a lush, colorful, frenzied depiction of a(n) ____.

Biblical event related to the worshiping of an idol by the Israelites

The dissolution of surfaces and study of local color was central to ____ art, which is dramatically evident in a series of canvases depicting ____ from a variety of angles, during different times of day and seasons.

Claude Monet's; Rouen Cathedral

The Doric frieze was divided vertically into compartments. The triglyphs contained vertical grooves and the ____were filled with sculpted figures.


During Akhenaton's reign, the longstanding stylized formality of Egyptian art briefly gave way to ____, as seen in the very famous Bust of Queen Nefertiti.


During the Baroque period, Protestant Dutch artists sold most of the works they produced to ____.

the middle class

During the Classical period, ____ became the center of Greek art and culture under the dynamic statesman ____.

Athens; Pericles

During the Old Kingdom period of Egyptian art, a new manner of representing the human figure developed that would last thousands of years. It was characterized by all of the following except ____.

naturalistic depiction of the human figure

During the ____ period of Greek art, an architectural format was developed that served as a model for all later Greek temples. The central room of the temple was known as a ____.

Archaic; cella

During the Renaissance period, there was a revival of all of the following except ____.

spirituality and otherworldliness

During World War II, Winston Churchill took extraordinary measures to protect ____ from the Nazi Blitz.

St. Paul's Cathedral

The Dying Lioness from Nineveh is an example of ____, the most common art form in Assyria.

carved stone reliefs depicting war and hunting scenes

Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun painted the portrait of Marie Antoinette and Her Children in an attempt to portray the queen as ____.

a loving devoted mother

The emperor Maxentius ordered construction of a large basilica near the Roman forum. Little of it remains today, but its design set the precedent for many subsequent ____.

The emperor Maxentius ordered construction of a large basilica near the Roman forum. Little of it remains today, but its design set the precedent for many subsequent ____.

Empire period Roman sculpture, as represented in Augustus of Primaporta, was often an interesting juxtaposition of ____ heads with idealized bodies.


The exterior of the Romanesque St. Étienne served as a model for Gothic architecture because its ____ appeared repeatedly in Gothic churches.

two-tower tripartite façade

The faces in Faith Ringgold's soft sculpture Mama Jones, Andrew, Barbara, and Faith are reminiscent of ____.

African masks

The Fallen Warrior from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina was posed in such a way that the body's form corresponded to the sharp angles of the ____ on which it was placed.


The famous Neoclassical painter ____ painted herself into her allegorical work entitled The Artist in the Character of Design Listening to the Inspiration of Poetry.

Angelica Kauffman

Feminist artist Ana Mendieta draped her body in mud for her performance piece, Arbol de la Vida. In terms of its visual impact, most viewers who saw it were likely ____ by its extraordinary contrasts of texture.


The first centuries after the death of Jesus, before Emperor Constantine proclaimed religious tolerance for Christians, were known as the ____.

Period of Persecution

For Charlemagne's Palatine Chapel at Aachen, he combined a(n) ____.

Byzantine central plan with Roman classical elements

For his bronze statue of David, the first life-size nude since classical times, Donatello chose ____ as a prototype.

an underdeveloped adolescent boy

For his Central Chinese Television Building in Beijing, Rem Koolhaas designed a(n) ____.


For his Grand Manner portraiture, Thomas Gainsborough employed all of the following pictorial devices except ____.

dramatic, looming clouds

For his mysterious Las Meninas, or the ____, Diego Velázquez dissolved his forms into small, roughly textured brushstrokes that would be the hallmark of ____ two centuries later.

maids in waiting; Impressionism

For his Neoclassical sculpture of Pauline Borghese, Antonio Canova chose to portray her as ____.


For his Twittering Machine, Paul Klee was influenced in part by ____.

ethnographic and children's art

The forms and composition of Titian's Venus of Urbino were evolved primarily from ____.

interactions of colors and contrasts of textures

For The Conversion of St. Paul, Caravaggio selected the models in his painting from ____.

society's outcasts

For the Paleolithic Hall of Bulls cave painting, artists used all of the following techniques except ____.

painting with a bronze knife blade

For works such as White Iris, Georgia O'Keeffe captured the essence of her subject utilizing all of the following techniques except ____.

using a dark and psychologically distressing color palette

Francesco Borromini's ____ is an organic building that incorporates the Baroque elements of motion, space, and light.

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

Francis Bacon's Head Surrounded by Sides of Beef is a raw and distorted reworking of ____.

Velázquez's Pope Innocent X

Francisco Goya, who was neither Neoclassicist nor Romantic, is best known for his ____, one of the most famous of which is The Third of May, 1808.

graphic representation of man's inhumanity to man

The François Vase, with black figures on a reddish background, is an example of the ____ painting technique and was produced during the ____ period of Greek art.

black-figure; Archaic

The fresco painting Ulysses in the Land of the Lestrygonians is an example of the ____ style of Roman wall painting. The Lestrygonians were ____.

Architectural; giant cannibals

From the ancient Greeks to the colonial Americans, the ____ has been found to be a useful basis for urban design.


From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in place of the word modeling?


From the Latin word meaning wedge, ____ was a system of writing developed by the Sumerians.


The Futurists' belief that their subjects were less important than the portrayal of a "dynamic sensation" is very evident in Giacomo Balla's constantly "moving" painting known as ____.

Street Light

The German Renaissance artist Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece is unusual and powerful for its ____.

tormented and dramatic depiction of the Crucifixion

Glass that has been spun into fine filaments and is used for insulation is known as ____.


The gold Russian pectoral piece, produced in the 4th century B.C.E., depicts a mythical creature that is half lion and half eagle, known as a ____, in the lower register.


The Great Pyramids at Giza were built with massive blocks and ____.

surfaced with white limestone

Gustave Courbet's manifesto reads "To record the manners, ideas, and aspects of the age as I myself saw them - to be a man as well as a painter - in short to create a living art - that is my aim." Courbet is considered the father of ____.


Haitian artist Jean-Ulrick Desert made ____ into burqas for The Burqa Project.

national flags

Hans Hoffman is considered a key post-war transitional artist whose paintings, such as The Golden Wall, were influenced by ____

Fauvist coloring and Cubist design

Hasegawa Tohaku's Pine Wood screen depicts all of the following except ____.

a background consisting of hazy mountains

Helen Frankenthaler's ____ is in many ways a reconciliation between gesture and color-field Abstract Expressionism.


Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's deformity led to an alienation from his family so he instead found a home in ____, as depicted in At the Moulin Rouge.

the cabarets, cafes, and bordellos of Paris

Henri Matisse consolidated all of the following influences into his Fauvist canvases except ____.

the stark realism of Courbet

Hew Locke's El Dorado is a nine and a half foot tall assemblage of ____ arranged in the shape of a bust of Queen Elizabeth II.

plastic toys

The Hudson River School was a group of artists who painted the beauty of the natural American landscape with a sense of romanticism that was embodied in the writings of ____.

James Fenimore Cooper

The iconography of the stylized, doll-like figures on the Weighing of Souls tympanum from the Cathedral of Autun was intended to convey ____.

fear and repentance

In 1913, the groundbreaking ____ was held in New York City and dominated by avant-garde European artists who would heavily influence subsequent American art. The most scandalous work at the exhibition was Marcel Duchamp's ____, which was dismissed as a "pile of kindling wood."

Armory Show; Nude Descending a Staircase #2

In 1922, British archaeologist Howard Carter remarked "...a gasp of wonderment escaped our lips, so gorgeous was the sight that met our eye: a golden effigy of the young boy king..." Carter was referring to ____.

King Tut's solid gold coffin

In an architectural feat not duplicated until Roman times, the Mycenaeans constructed the Treasury of Atreus, a huge beehive-shaped tomb known as a ____.


In an effort to produce an integrated look to the Parthenon, all of the following construction variations are found except that the ____.

top step of the platform is perfectly straight

In art, a ____ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the simplest and most complex of the visual elements.


In both of their paintings of Judith Decapitating Holofernes, Caravaggio and Artemisia Gentileschi utilized a harsh, theatrical "spotlight" effect known as ____.


In both the Akkadian Victory Stele of Naram Sin and the Egyptian Narmer Palette, the kings are depicted ____.

in combined frontal and profile view and larger than surrounding figures

The Incas from Peru were engineering geniuses and built both the fortress of Machu Picchu and the ____, which was 30 feet wide and walled for its entire 3750 miles.

Royal Road of the Mountains

In Constantin Brancusi's sculptures, such as Bird in Space, he reached for the essence of the subject by ____.

finding the simplest form that, along with a title, would fire recognition in the viewer

In Cuban artist Alexandre Arrechea's Architectural Elements II, his primary theme seems to relate to ____.

a sense of quiet desperation

In Deconstructivist architectural design, buildings are intended to be seen in ____.

bits and pieces

Indian artist Subodh Gupta's Silk Route is composed entirely of ____.

kitchen utensils

In his Adam and Eve engraving, the Northern Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer emphasizes the ____.

classically inspired beauty of the human body

In his Creation of Adam scene from the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Michelangelo created the most ____ in the history of art as God reached out to spark life into Adam.

dramatic negative space

In his eroticized Two Women's Torsos, Willem de Kooning combines biomorphic, organic shapes with harsh, jagged lines; however, we also see that he is one of the few Abstract Expressionists who never completely surrendered ____ painting.


In his photograph ____, Adi Nes depicts a homeless man wheeling his child through Tel Aviv to point out the discrepancies between the dream of Israel and its harsh reality.

Abraham and Isaac

In his Syndics of the Draper's Guild, Rembrandt captures the men just as ____.

someone outside the canvas enters the room

In his ____, Vincent van Gogh's vibrant colors, characteristic long, thin strokes and feverish application of paint creates an emotionalism that turns a sleepy town into a cosmic display.

Starry Night

In Jan van Eyck's strikingly detailed double portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, which of the following is not a symbolic reference in the painting?

The vase of lilies

In Jean-Honoré Fragonard's Happy Accidents of the Swing, all of the following are characteristics of the Rococo and depicted in the painting except ____.

classically inspired facial features

In La Source, Prud'hon's nude figure is ____

carefully modeled and three dimensional

In much of Chinese art there is a non-Western type of reverence for nature in which people are seen as ____.

integral parts of the order of nature

In New Kingdom Egypt, Amenhotep IV started a revolution in both religion and the arts when he changed his name to Akhenaton to honor the sun god and became a ____. The period of his reign is known as the ____.

monotheist; Amarna period

In Robert Rauschenberg's combine painting The Bed, he uses a(n) ____ as his canvas.

quilt and pillow

In Spanish Colonial art, indigenous art forms were integrated with European influences. Examples of Meso-American motifs include all of the following except ____.

the lion image

In St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice, the arms of its cross plan are equal in length and the interior focus is a central dome. This is known as a ____.

Greek Cross plan

In St. Sernin, the ceiling structure is a stone barrel vault, which was necessary for ____.


The interior of St. Étienne has a sense of lightness because the development of the ____ made it possible to pierce the walls above the tribune gallery with a series of windows called a ____.

rib vault; clerestory

In the 1980s, a group of anonymous women artists banded together to fight injustice against women in the art market. They were known as ____.

the Guerrilla Girls

In The Annunciation to the Shepherds manuscript illumination from the Lectionary of Henry II, the humans are smaller than and below the angel, and the animals are smaller and lower than the humans. This technique is known as ____.

hierarchical scaling

In the apse of St. Peter's, Bernini combined architecture, sculpture, and stained glass to produce the brilliant golden display known as the ____.

Cathedra Petri

In the Baroque period, England's most significant contribution to the arts was in the realm of ____.


In the bronze Altar of the Hand from Benin, which of the following is not meant to venerate the king and glorify his divine office?

The king is surrounded by symmetrical, symbolic forms.

In The Burial of Count Orgaz, the ____ painter El Greco's heavenly figures appear ____.

Spanish; extremely attenuated

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