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36 terms

Biochemistry

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atom
the basic unit of life
nucleus
strong forces that bind protons and neutrons together
electron
a negatively charged particle
element
a pure substance that consists entirely of one atom
isotope
atoms of the same electrons that differ in neutrons
covalent bond
forms hen electrons are shared between atoms
molecule
the smallest unit of most compounds
van der waals forces
intermolecular forces of attraction
cohesion
an attraction between molecules of the properties
adhesion
an attraction between molecules
mixture
a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together
solution
a type of mixture where all the components are distributed evenly
solute
the substance that is dissolved
solvent
the substance in which something dissolves
suspensions
mixture of water and non dissolved material
pH scale
a system that helps indicate the concentration of a substance
acid
any compound that forms H+ ions in a solution
base
a compound that produces hydroxide ions
buffers
weak acids/bases that can react with strong acids/bases
monomers
smaller units that make up polymers
carbohydrates
compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. plants and animals use carbohydrates for energy
polysaccharides
multiple sugar molecules
lipids
made mostly from carbon and hydrogens
nucleic acids
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygens, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
nucleotides
five carbon sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenerons
RNA
sugar ribose
DNA
sugar deoxyribose
proteins
macromoleucules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
amino acids
compounds with an amino group
chemical reactions
a process that changes and transforms one set of chemicals into another
reactants
elements/compounds that enter into a chemical quickly
products
elements/compounds produced by a chemical reaction
activation energy
the energy needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts
substrates
the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions