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scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
a major biotic community characterized by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate
a vast, level, treeless plain in the arctic regions. The ground beneath the surface of the tundras is frozen even in summer
temperate deciduous forest
forest in a temperate region, characterized by trees that drop their leaves annually
A type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely
tropical rain forest
biome near the equator with consistant warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth
forest populated by cone-bearing evergreen trees; mostly found in northern latitudes
largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support
an interaction between two or more species that live together in direct contact
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established
ecological succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
an organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
pyramid of energy
an ecological pyramid that shows the energy flow through each trophic level in an ecosystem.
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
carbon oxygen cycle
The movement of carbon and oxygen through the environment. Involves respiration, photosynthesis, decomposition, burning of oxygen, and plants and animals.
the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
resources that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time (food, solar energy, oxygen)
resources that cannot be replaced in a short amount of time, people will use them up before they can be replaced by nature (fossil fuels, minerals, old growth forests)
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
process by which pollutants become more concentrated in successive trophic levels of a food web
caused by CFCs, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon, methyl bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone. Negative effects of ozone depletion include increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, and decreased plant growth.
the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
species that enter new ecosystems and multiply, harming native species and their habitats
practice of harvesting or hunting to such a degree that remaining individuals may not be able to replenish the population
harm to lakes and rivers resulting from the release of excessive waste heat into them
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
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