96 terms

French Revolution, Napoleon, and the European Reaction

Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI wife who was unhappy in her marriage, being a self-fish woman that didn't care of the starving common people
Purpose of Antoinette and Louis XVI's marriage
to unite France and Austria as an "alliance"
why was France so bankrupt
Glorious Revolution, Seven years war and the American Revolution
Who took away nobles taxes?
French monarchy in the 17th century
Who and why did they ask the nobility to pay the taxes again?
Louis XVI, to pay off the monarchy's debt
When did Louis XVI ask for nobles , churchmen, and aristocrats to pay for new land taxes?
Assembly of Notables
Results of Assembly of Notables
Nobles said no, asked for more power in governing the nation.
Symbolizing the start of the French revolution is....
the rejection of the nobles to Louis XVI @ Assembly of Nobles
Estates General
Three state body that included:
First estate: clergy
Second Estate: nobility
Third estate: commons
Traditional voting rights in the Estates General:
each house getting one vote
Why did the nobles see meeting with the Estates General as a good thing?
The clergy and nobles dominated the vote, assumed they'd get what they wanted
Who from the First Estate agreed with the Third Estate?
some simple priests
Abbe Sieyes
"What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the govt. should be responsible to the people.
1788 view of the Estates
Many began to write that the Third Estate was the true embodiment of the political nation
Sessions for the Estate General met...
At Versailles
What did the King do after the outbreak of Third Estate being best writings?
doubled the members of the Third estate, did nothing vote wise since each estate had 1 vote
cahiers de doleances
lists of grievances given to the king at the start of the Estates General, telling they wanted change but didn't know what to change
Some of the cahiers de doleances asked for:
equal tax system
regular Estates General meetings
limit sheep herds (bad breath ruined pastures)
lessen the royal absolutism
All of the cahiers agreed on one thing:
Monarchy will stay to rule France, loyal to the idea
What angered the 3rd Estate in the first meeting?
Louis delayed the meeting several hours, receiving credentials from the first 2 estates.
June 17, what did the 3rd Estate decide?
Weren't going to meet based on class, but as a national assembly, representing each estate.
Tennis court oath
Third Estate kept meeting as a national assembly, but rumors came out that the king was to go against the head members of the 3rd estate, also, their meeting hall was locked one day. They promised to keep meeting until a constitution was made for equality.
Louis XVI's response to tennis court oath
he agreed to periodically call up the Estates General and take off a great load of their taxes.
Third estate reaction to Louis's concessions?
He was too late, the offer wasn't enough
What did Louis FINALLY do for the 3rd estate?
grouped all three estates into the national assembly
fortress that stood as a symbol of royal tyranny.
Why did they storm the Bastille?
There was a rumor that the king would forget about the National Assembly and scatter them apart to re-enhance royal absolutism
Storming of Bastille
after the rumor,3rd estate decided to defend their city, went to the Bastille prison for gunpowder. Governor of the prison refused them, so they fought until the prison surrendered.
King's response to the Bastille
dispersed troops that would disperse assembly
Commune of Paris
National Guard
Commune of Paris
new municipal government. (for towns)
National Guard
lead by Marquis de Lafayette, this army was formed after the Bastille to suppress revolutionaries
Great Fear
panic of French peasants leading to their destruction of nobles houses and property, when they heard nobles were going to steal from them.
After the Great Fear
Equality was restored to all subjects, with nobles surrendering their restrictions and powers.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
no time to write Constitution, so Lafayette wrote this with Jefferson
The Rights of Women
Olympe de Gouges: education, property, divorce
Inspired by de Gouges was:
Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women
After the national assembly took control of the Catholic Church
they gad the responsibility for the money, making the monarchy's debt paid by selling Church land and issuing assignats (govt. bonds)
Civil Constitution of the Church
Bishops chosen by parish priests, who were elected by their parishioners. Clergy: servants w/ salaries paid by state. must oath loyalty and uphold this constitution.
Count of Artois
Louis XVI little brother
Radical republicans led by Maximilien Robespierre
favored a republic but feared domination by Paris.
Who did Girondins declare war on absolutist states
to free the people from the unfair ruling
ex. Austria and Prussia
Why was the start of the war difficult for France?
The sans culottes were dealing with shortage of bread and unfair voting rights. They feared Duke of Brunswick, who threatened Frane if Prussian royal family was interfered with.
the Commune
radical attempt to govern Paris away from France
After many revolts and people getting kille, the Commune called for...
An election for a new national assembly legislative body
PrussiaWhy did France exist the war with Austria and
because it was too involved and distracted with the revolution in France
After the end of the war
France finally became a republic, kicking out the monarchy
What happened to the royal family?
Arrested, but Louis was guillotined after finding letters with bro. in law.
Effect of French Revolution on Europe
Austria and Prussia at first saw it to weaken France, but then saw it would influence their countries, taking away their powers. Great Britain thought it was good, seeing it as the thing to finally let them agree together
Edmund Burke's view on French Rev.
Being part of the Whigs, he actually liked reform but saw the French's reform as dangerous and eventually leading to a lot of conflict and terror.
Jacobins, AKA
The mountains
Middle section in the convention
the plain
whoever had the plain
would win in their view of where to take the next step of the Revolution
King's fate opinions
Girondins: exile
govt. shouldn't have active role in ruling economy
(Girondins view)
counter rev. because of the restriction of power on the church
Committee of Public Safety
Political body of the French Revolution that controlled France during the Reign of Terror. led by Robespierre
With the help of the sans culottes, Jacobins....
expelled the Girondins from the convention
Reign of Terror
Robespierre ruled France as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Girondins sympathizer executed in bath tub
levee en masse
Lazare Carnot, head of military, drafting the country for military service
Republic of Virtue
attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy
to follow the Republic of virtue, Robespierre
changed the week to being ten days, changed names of months to match seasons, first year of the republic was year 1, and public areas had to eliminate religious symbols
Cult of Supreme Being
religion based on deism by Robespierre, turning the Cathedral into a Temple of Reason.
symbol of the Reign of Terror
supported the Terror and were for dechristianization of France, govt. interference in econ., and violence to get what they needed.
anti Robespierre group, executed many Jacobins
After Jacobin execution, Thermidorians...
eliminated Committee of public safety and the Commune of Paris
New form of govt.:
the Directory
the directory
2-house legislature: Council of the Ancients-discussed and voted on legislation proposed by Council of 500
who saved the day when a royalist rebellion occurred on the Directory
sent to war with several countries to win land and goods. After wars, he gained north and central Italy. After many wins, the only country left was G.B.
Napoleon and Great Britain
while planning an attack on G.B, Napoleon was defeated by Admiral Horatio Nelson.
After seeing his losing situation in Egypt
Napoleon retreated to France, seeing the Directory weak
coup d'etat
Napoleon overthrowing the Directory
Napoleon set up a new constitution to gain back peoples support, by...
making himself First consul and conducting a plebiscite, a vote by the people to pass his new constitution, winning INCREDIBLY
Napoleon's concordat with the Pope
recognized Catholicism as the majority religion of France, not the dominant. Tolerant towards protestants and jews. Bishops were picked by the papacy who were recommended them by First Consul . Also, calendar was changed to normal, since sundays and religious holidays were originally taken out
Napoleonic code/ Civil code of 1804
one code for ALL of France:
equality for all people
safeguard for people's properties
reversing women's rights :(
making the society paternal (men gave permissions)
Napoleon reused the peoples vote to...
declare himself Emperor in 1804
Treaty of Amiens
keeping France and G.B. in peace
Louisiana Territory
Napoleon sold it to American for $11 million
Battle of Trafalgar
Admiral Nelson died, preventing France entering G.B.
third coalition
G.b., Austria and Russia
Continental system
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
reasons of Napoleon's defeat:
1. peninsula war in Spain
2. growing nationalism in French-occupied Europe
3. 1812 invasion of Russia
War in Spain
while going to take over portugal, Napoleon saw the awful leaders in Spain and thought he could take advantage and put his bro. as leader. But the citizens used guerilla tactics to drive him out
Invasion of Russia
Grand Army entered Russia to see it scorched and abandoned, winter came and Napoleon tried to go home, with few supplies, he returned with 1/6 of men.
Russia, Prussia, Austria, and G.B
formed a coalition, fighting the french ruled areas in Europe, finally coming to France, forcing Napoleon out
Duke of Wellington
led the British against Napoleon at Battle of Waterloo
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of rep.s of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
2 things eliminated in Congress of Vienna
nationalism and liberalism by Prince Metternich
Bourbon Restoration
Louis XVIII back on throne with a constitutional monarchy.
white terror
1795 royalist rebellion in Paris, trying to overthrow the revolutionaries.
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
Hundred Days
name given to Napoleon's return
after women's march on versailles...
king louis came back to Paris