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Marie Antoinette

Louis XVI wife who was unhappy in her marriage, being a self-fish woman that didn't care of the starving common people

Purpose of Antoinette and Louis XVI's marriage

to unite France and Austria as an "alliance"

why was France so bankrupt

Glorious Revolution, Seven years war and the American Revolution

Who took away nobles taxes?

French monarchy in the 17th century

Who and why did they ask the nobility to pay the taxes again?

Louis XVI, to pay off the monarchy's debt

When did Louis XVI ask for nobles , churchmen, and aristocrats to pay for new land taxes?

Assembly of Notables

Results of Assembly of Notables

Nobles said no, asked for more power in governing the nation.

Symbolizing the start of the French revolution is....

the rejection of the nobles to Louis XVI @ Assembly of Nobles

Estates General

Three state body that included:
First estate: clergy
Second Estate: nobility
Third estate: commons

Traditional voting rights in the Estates General:

each house getting one vote

Why did the nobles see meeting with the Estates General as a good thing?

The clergy and nobles dominated the vote, assumed they'd get what they wanted

Who from the First Estate agreed with the Third Estate?

some simple priests

Abbe Sieyes

"What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the govt. should be responsible to the people.

1788 view of the Estates

Many began to write that the Third Estate was the true embodiment of the political nation

Sessions for the Estate General met...

At Versailles

What did the King do after the outbreak of Third Estate being best writings?

doubled the members of the Third estate, did nothing vote wise since each estate had 1 vote

cahiers de doleances

lists of grievances given to the king at the start of the Estates General, telling they wanted change but didn't know what to change

Some of the cahiers de doleances asked for:

equal tax system
regular Estates General meetings
limit sheep herds (bad breath ruined pastures)
lessen the royal absolutism

All of the cahiers agreed on one thing:

Monarchy will stay to rule France, loyal to the idea

What angered the 3rd Estate in the first meeting?

Louis delayed the meeting several hours, receiving credentials from the first 2 estates.

June 17, what did the 3rd Estate decide?

Weren't going to meet based on class, but as a national assembly, representing each estate.

Tennis court oath

Third Estate kept meeting as a national assembly, but rumors came out that the king was to go against the head members of the 3rd estate, also, their meeting hall was locked one day. They promised to keep meeting until a constitution was made for equality.

Louis XVI's response to tennis court oath

he agreed to periodically call up the Estates General and take off a great load of their taxes.

Third estate reaction to Louis's concessions?

He was too late, the offer wasn't enough

What did Louis FINALLY do for the 3rd estate?

grouped all three estates into the national assembly


fortress that stood as a symbol of royal tyranny.

Why did they storm the Bastille?

There was a rumor that the king would forget about the National Assembly and scatter them apart to re-enhance royal absolutism

Storming of Bastille

after the rumor,3rd estate decided to defend their city, went to the Bastille prison for gunpowder. Governor of the prison refused them, so they fought until the prison surrendered.

King's response to the Bastille

dispersed troops that would disperse assembly
Commune of Paris
National Guard

Commune of Paris

new municipal government. (for towns)

National Guard

lead by Marquis de Lafayette, this army was formed after the Bastille to suppress revolutionaries

Great Fear

panic of French peasants leading to their destruction of nobles houses and property, when they heard nobles were going to steal from them.

After the Great Fear

Equality was restored to all subjects, with nobles surrendering their restrictions and powers.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

no time to write Constitution, so Lafayette wrote this with Jefferson

The Rights of Women

Olympe de Gouges: education, property, divorce

Inspired by de Gouges was:

Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women

After the national assembly took control of the Catholic Church

they gad the responsibility for the money, making the monarchy's debt paid by selling Church land and issuing assignats (govt. bonds)

Civil Constitution of the Church

Bishops chosen by parish priests, who were elected by their parishioners. Clergy: servants w/ salaries paid by state. must oath loyalty and uphold this constitution.

Count of Artois

Louis XVI little brother


Radical republicans led by Maximilien Robespierre


favored a republic but feared domination by Paris.

Who did Girondins declare war on absolutist states

to free the people from the unfair ruling
ex. Austria and Prussia

Why was the start of the war difficult for France?

The sans culottes were dealing with shortage of bread and unfair voting rights. They feared Duke of Brunswick, who threatened Frane if Prussian royal family was interfered with.

the Commune

radical attempt to govern Paris away from France

After many revolts and people getting kille, the Commune called for...

An election for a new national assembly legislative body

PrussiaWhy did France exist the war with Austria and

because it was too involved and distracted with the revolution in France

After the end of the war

France finally became a republic, kicking out the monarchy

What happened to the royal family?

Arrested, but Louis was guillotined after finding letters with bro. in law.

Effect of French Revolution on Europe

Austria and Prussia at first saw it to weaken France, but then saw it would influence their countries, taking away their powers. Great Britain thought it was good, seeing it as the thing to finally let them agree together

Edmund Burke's view on French Rev.

Being part of the Whigs, he actually liked reform but saw the French's reform as dangerous and eventually leading to a lot of conflict and terror.

Jacobins, AKA

The mountains

Middle section in the convention

the plain

whoever had the plain

would win in their view of where to take the next step of the Revolution

King's fate opinions

Girondins: exile


govt. shouldn't have active role in ruling economy
(Girondins view)


counter rev. because of the restriction of power on the church

Committee of Public Safety

Political body of the French Revolution that controlled France during the Reign of Terror. led by Robespierre

With the help of the sans culottes, Jacobins....

expelled the Girondins from the convention

Reign of Terror

Robespierre ruled France as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed


Girondins sympathizer executed in bath tub

levee en masse

Lazare Carnot, head of military, drafting the country for military service

Republic of Virtue

attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy

to follow the Republic of virtue, Robespierre

changed the week to being ten days, changed names of months to match seasons, first year of the republic was year 1, and public areas had to eliminate religious symbols

Cult of Supreme Being

religion based on deism by Robespierre, turning the Cathedral into a Temple of Reason.

symbol of the Reign of Terror



supported the Terror and were for dechristianization of France, govt. interference in econ., and violence to get what they needed.


anti Robespierre group, executed many Jacobins

After Jacobin execution, Thermidorians...

eliminated Committee of public safety and the Commune of Paris

New form of govt.:

the Directory

the directory

2-house legislature: Council of the Ancients-discussed and voted on legislation proposed by Council of 500

who saved the day when a royalist rebellion occurred on the Directory



sent to war with several countries to win land and goods. After wars, he gained north and central Italy. After many wins, the only country left was G.B.

Napoleon and Great Britain

while planning an attack on G.B, Napoleon was defeated by Admiral Horatio Nelson.

After seeing his losing situation in Egypt

Napoleon retreated to France, seeing the Directory weak

coup d'etat

Napoleon overthrowing the Directory

Napoleon set up a new constitution to gain back peoples support, by...

making himself First consul and conducting a plebiscite, a vote by the people to pass his new constitution, winning INCREDIBLY

Napoleon's concordat with the Pope

recognized Catholicism as the majority religion of France, not the dominant. Tolerant towards protestants and jews. Bishops were picked by the papacy who were recommended them by First Consul . Also, calendar was changed to normal, since sundays and religious holidays were originally taken out

Napoleonic code/ Civil code of 1804

one code for ALL of France:
equality for all people
safeguard for people's properties
reversing women's rights :(
making the society paternal (men gave permissions)

Napoleon reused the peoples vote to...

declare himself Emperor in 1804

Treaty of Amiens

keeping France and G.B. in peace

Louisiana Territory

Napoleon sold it to American for $11 million

Battle of Trafalgar

Admiral Nelson died, preventing France entering G.B.

third coalition

G.b., Austria and Russia

Continental system

Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.

reasons of Napoleon's defeat:

1. peninsula war in Spain
2. growing nationalism in French-occupied Europe
3. 1812 invasion of Russia

War in Spain

while going to take over portugal, Napoleon saw the awful leaders in Spain and thought he could take advantage and put his bro. as leader. But the citizens used guerilla tactics to drive him out

Invasion of Russia

Grand Army entered Russia to see it scorched and abandoned, winter came and Napoleon tried to go home, with few supplies, he returned with 1/6 of men.

Russia, Prussia, Austria, and G.B

formed a coalition, fighting the french ruled areas in Europe, finally coming to France, forcing Napoleon out

Duke of Wellington

led the British against Napoleon at Battle of Waterloo

Congress of Vienna

Meeting of rep.s of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon

2 things eliminated in Congress of Vienna

nationalism and liberalism by Prince Metternich

Bourbon Restoration

Louis XVIII back on throne with a constitutional monarchy.

white terror

1795 royalist rebellion in Paris, trying to overthrow the revolutionaries.

Battle of Waterloo

This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler

Hundred Days

name given to Napoleon's return

after women's march on versailles...

king louis came back to Paris

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