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HBS Chapter 4
Terms in this set (9)
4.3.a What types of muscle help move blood around the body?
The heart is the primary muscle that helps move blood & is made of cardiac muscle tissue. It is responsible for the circulation of blood & all the materials in it.
4.3.b What is the relationship between the heart and the lungs? 4.3.c What is the pathway of blood in and out of
the heart in pulmonary and systemic circulation?
Pulmonary circulation: The right side of the heart collects deoxygenated blood into its atrium & then passes it into the ventricle. The right ventricle then pushes the blood to the lungs, where the CO2 is dropped off and O2 is picked up.
Systemic Circulation: The blood from the lungs comes back to the left side of the heart through the left atrium. It then moves into the left ventricle and the ventricle pushes it out through the aorta (biggest artery) and into the rest of the arteries. The arteries carry oxygenated blood to all of the body's tissues. As they reach the tissues, they turn into tiny arteries called arterioles, which then become capillaries. The capillaries are the place where oxygen, nutrients and hormones are dropped off and waste products are picked up. The capillaries then turn into venules, which turn into veins, which come together as the vena cavas (biggest veins) and carry deoxygenated blood back into the right atrium of the heart.
4.3.d How do the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries relate to their function in the body? 4.3.e What
unique features of veins help move blood back to the heart?
Arteries: Three layers of thick, fairly rigid walls to allow them to expand/contract & to handle high pressure (blood has greatest pressure as it's leaving the heart)— one layer is smooth muscle
Capillaries: Thin walled (one cell layer thick) & microscopic in size to allow exchange of materials, often have pores to allow movement of materials
Three layers of elastic/collapsible walls with valves to prevent the backflow of blood as it moves toward the heart— one layer is smooth muscle
4.3.f What are varicose veins? 4.3.g Why don't we ever hear about varicose arteries?
Varicose veins are big, twisty veins near the skin's surface that are caused by weakened valves. When the valves don't work (keep blood moving), blood collects in the veins and the pressure builds up, causing them to become weak, large and twisted. They can run in families, but are also caused by age, being overweight and standing for long periods of time.
Arteries don't do this because they have higher pressure in them & therefore do not need valves to keep the blood moving.
4.3.h What are the major arteries and veins in the body and which regions do they serve?
Aorta—blood is pushed out of the aorta by the left ventricle & then the aorta branches into all other arteries in the body
Coronary Artery—this is the artery that runs across the ventral side of the heart, nourishing the cardiac tissue itself
Pulmonary Arteries—carry blood from the right ventricle to the lungs to pick up oxygen
Superior Vena Cava—carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body (arms and head) back to the heart
Inferior Vena Cava-- carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body (abdomen and legs) back to the heart
Pulmonary Veins—carry newly oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium
4.2. a How do muscles assist with movement of the body and of substances around the body?
Our muscles are what allow all movement of our bodies (and within our bodies). They help us involuntarily by helping food move down the esophagus and into the stomach (peristalsis) and helping blood move through our bodies (the heart is a muscle). They also help us move our bodies voluntarily from place to place (the muscles in our limbs). Our bodies each have about 650 muscles & are ~ 50% muscle by weight!
4.2. b How do the structure and function of the three types of muscle tissue compare?
fibers form the wall of the heart & function involuntarily.
They are attached to bone, mostly in the legs, arms, abdomen, chest, neck and face. They are striated muscle fibers (lined under microscope) & attach to bone by a tendon. They hold the skeleton together and give the body shape. They are voluntary (we control them) and contract quickly and powerfully), but they tire easily.
They are smooth (not striated) & are controlled automatically by our nervous system. They are also called ―involuntary‖ muscles. They make up the walls of the stomach and intestine to help break down and move food. They also line the walls of blood vessels. They take longer to contract than skeletal muscles, but also don't tire as easily.
4.2.c How are muscle fibers and membranes organized to form a whole skeletal muscle?
The epimysium ("upon muscle") is the outermost layer of connective tissue. The perimysium ("around muscle") is made of connective tissue and forms casings for bundles of muscle fibers. The endomysium ("within muscle‖) is connective tissue surrounding each individual muscle fiber. Each fascicle is a small cluster of muscle fibers, with endomysium between the individual fibers. Blood vessels run between the fascicles, bringing the tissue nutrients & removing waste. Nerves also run throughout, controlling the movement of the muscles. Together, the network of nerves and blood vessels are referred to as the plexus.
4.2.e How are muscles named?
4.2.d What do skeletal muscle structure and attachment to bones tell you about
Several factors are considered when naming a muscle, including Location (EX: tibialis anterior is on the front of the tibia) (EX: deltoid ―resembles‖ (- oid ) a ―triangle‖ ( delt ))
(EX: sternocleidomastoid—the muscle attaches to the sternum and the tendons attach to the mastoid process of the skull.) 4) Relative size (EX: gluteal or ―rump‖ region - the gluteus maximus is bigger and the gluteus minimus smaller). 5) Number of muscle ―heads‖ or divisions (EX: Biceps means ―two-headed‖ and has two divisions) 6) Direction of muscle fibers (EX: the rectus abdominis muscle is located in the front of the abdomen and its fibers are oriented in a ―straight‖ (rect), vertical direction). 7): Association with characters (EX: sartorius means ―presence of‖ (-us) a ―tailor‖ (sartori )! Tailors used to sit cross-legged upon the ground. The sartorius is actually located along the inner aspect of each thigh. Thus, when it contracts, it flexes (bends) the lower leg like an ancient tailor.
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