26 terms

Robots, Expert Systems, and Artificial Intelligence Vocab

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Machine Learning
Artificial intelligence techniques that make it possible for machine performance to improve based on feedback from past basic computer operations. ie: chess, checkers
Sensor
A device that enables digital machines to monitor a physical quantity of the analog world, such as temperature, humidity, or pressure, to provide data used in robotics, environmental climate control, and other applications. Different sensors depending on use. Enable robots to modify actions based on feedback from the outside world.
Robot
Computer-controlled machines designed to perform specific manual tasks. Forced labor.
Robotics
Sensor and robot
Natural Language
Language that people speak and write every day. Makes AI hard for computers.
AI(Artificial Intelligence)
The field of computer science devoted to making computers perceive, reason, and act in ways that have, until now, been reserved for human beings.
Common Sense Knowledge
Knowledge acquired from living in the world. ie: knowing you're going to get wet if it's raining outside.
Agent
Software programs that can ask questions, respond to commands, pay attention to users' work patterns, serve as a guide and a coach, take on owners' goals and use reasoning to fabricate their own goals.
Pattern Recognition
Identifying recurring patterns in input data with the goal of understanding or catergorizing that input. Humans good at it, computers sort of, getting there. ie: speech recognition software, OCR software, finger print identification, speech synthesis software.
Artificial Intelligence
AI, Common Sense Knowledge, Agent, Pattern Recognition.
Expert System
Information systems or software programs designed to replicate the decision-making process of a human expert.
Knowledge Base
A dataBASE that contains both facts and a system of rules for determining and changing the relationship among those facts. Gathered by a knowledge engineer, makes up an expert system
Inference Engine
Software that derives logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true. ie: if then
Fuzzy Logic
A type of logic that allows conclusions to be stated as probabilities rather than certainties. ie: weather
Never based on data
inference engine, fuzzy logic
Knowledge Engineer
A specialist who interviews and observes experts and converts their words and actions into a knowledge base.
Domain
The narrow knowledge based of an expert system.
Image Analysis
The process of identifying objects and shapes in a photograph, drawing, video, or other visual image. Humans better than computers.
Turing Test
A way to test machine intelligence. To determine w/ ?s whether responses come from computer or human
Parallel Processing
Using multiple processors to divide jobs into pieces and WORK SIMULTANEOUSLY on the pieces. Multitasking, humans better than computers.
Asimov's Three Laws
A robot may not injure a human being, a robot must obey orders given by human beings, except if those orders conflict with 1st law, a robot must protect its own existence unless it conflicts with the 1st or 2nd law.
Advantages of Robots
save labor costs, robots can work 24/7; improve quality and increase productivity, especially in repetitive jobs; robots are ideal for dangerous or impossible jobs for humans. ie. clean up hazardous waste, under sea or space exploration
Positives of Expert Systems
can provide expertise when no experts available; preservers the knowledge of experts after they leave an organization; combines the knowledge of several experts; makes knowledge available to more people
Negatives of Expert Systems
poor at planning strategies; less creative than human thinkers; powerless outside their narrow, deep domain of knowledge
Humans better than Computers
creativity; image analysis; common sense knowledge; seeing relationships; express and interpret emotions; translating languages.
Computers better than Humans
mathamatical calculations faster and more adequatel; storing vasts amounts of data; recalling information