Social Psychology - Glossary
Terms in this set (246)
above average effect
The tendency for people to rate themselves as above the average on most positive social attributes.
The level of interpretation we place on an action; low-level interpretations focus on the action itself, whereas higher-level interpretations focus on its ultimate goals.
The tendency to attribute our own behavior mainly to situational causes but the behavior of others mainly to internal (dispositional) causes.
Tasks for which the group product is the sum or combination of the efforts of individual members.
Our current feelings and moods.
Predictions about how we would feel about events we have not actually experienced.
Behavior directed toward the goal of harm- ing another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.
anchoring and adjustment heuristic
A heuristic that involves the tendency to use a number of value as a starting point to which we then make adjustments.
asynchronous forms of communication
Unlike face- to-face communication where there is no delay, asyn- chronous forms such as e-mail and other forms of text messaging give people a period of time during which they can think about their response before responding.
The degree of security experienced in interpersonal relationships. Differential styles initially develop in the interactions between infant and caregiver when the infant acquires basic attitudes about self-worth and interpersonal trust.
Evaluation of various aspects of the social world.
The extent to which two individuals share the same attitudes.
attitude-to-behavior process model
A model of how atti- tudes guide behavior that emphasizes the influence of attitudes and stored knowledge of what is appropriate in a given situation on an individual's definition of the pres- ent situation. This definition, in turn, influences overt behavior.
The process through which we seek to identify the causes of others' behavior and so gain knowledge of their stable traits and dispositions.
Concerned with memory of the ourselves in the past, sometimes over the life course as a whole.
The apparent movement of a sin- gle, stationary source of light in a dark room. Often used to study the emergence of social norms and social influence.
This occurs when, after extensive experience with a task or type of information, we reach the stage where we can perform the task or process the information in a seemingly effortless, automatic, and non- conscious manner.
A strategy for making judgments on the basis of how easily specific kinds of information can be brought to mind.
The formulations of Heider and of New- comb that specify the relationships among (1) an individu- al's liking for another person, (2) his or her attitude about a given topic, and (3) the other person's attitude about the same topic. Balance (liking plus agreement) results in a positive emotional state. Imbalance (liking plus disagree- ment) results in a negative state and a desire to restore balance. Nonbalance (disliking plus either agreement or disagreement) leads to indifference.
A process in which opposing sides exchange offers, counteroffers, and concessions, either directly or through representatives.
Cues provided by the position, posture, and movement of others' bodies or body parts.
bona fide pipeline
A technique that uses priming to mea- sure implicit racial attitudes.
A process in which people meet as a group to generate new ideas freely.
A pattern of behavior in which one individual is chosen as the target of repeated aggression by one or more others; the target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (the bullies).
The view that providing angry people with an opportunity to express their aggressive impulses in relatively safe ways will reduce their tendencies to engage in more harmful forms of aggression.
central route to persuasion
Attitude change resulting from systematic processing of information presented in persua- sive messages.
A basic form of learning in which one stimulus, initially neutral, acquires the capacity to evoke reactions through repeated pairing with another stimulus. In a sense, one stimulus becomes a signal for the presentation or occurrence of the other.
A relationship in which two people spend a great deal of time together, interact in a variety of situa- tions, and provide mutual emotional support.
An internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between two or more atti- tudes or between their attitudes and their behavior.
cohesiveness (Chapter 8)
The extent to which we are attracted to a social group and want to belong to it.
cohesiveness (Chapter 11)
All forces (factors) that cause group members to remain in the group.
Groups in which the norm is to maintain harmony among group members, even if doing so mightentail some personal costs.
common ingroup identity model
A theory suggesting that to the extent individuals in different groups view them- selves as members of a single social entity, intergroup bias will be reduced.
Groups that tend to involve face-to- face interaction and in which the individual members are bonded to each other.
Face-to-face interaction is often absent, and the members are linked together via the cat- egory as a whole rather than each other.
Love that is based on friendship, mutual attraction, shared interests, respect, and concern for one another's welfare.
A form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another.
The stimulus that comes to stand for or signal a prior unconditioned stimulus.
conditions of uncertainty
Where the "correct" answer is difficult to know or would take a great deal of effort to determine.
A process in which individuals or groups perceive that others have taken or will soon take actions incompat- ible with their own interests.
A type of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes or behavior to adhere to existing social norms.
The extent to which other people react to some stimulus or even in the same manner as the person we are considering.
The extent to which an individual responds to a given stimulus or situation in the same way on different occasions (i.e., across time).
In Sternberg's triangular model of love, a complete and ideal love that combines intimacy, passion, and decision (commitment).
The view that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effec- tive in reducing prejudice between them.
Behavior in which group members work together to attain shared goals.
A method of research in which a scientist systematically observes two or more variables to determine whether changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other.
correspondence bias (fundamental attribution error)
A theory describing how we use others' behavior as a basis for inferring their stabledispositions.
The tendency to imagine other outcomes in a situation than the ones that actually occurred ("What might have been").
cultures of honor
Cultures in which there are strong norms indicating that aggression is an appropriate response to insults to one's honor.
Bullying (repeated assaults against specific target persons) occurring in chatrooms and other Internet locations.
Procedures at the conclusion of a research ses- sion in which participants are given full information aboutthe nature of the research and the hypothesis or hypoth- eses under investigation.
A technique whereby researchers withhold information about the purposes or procedures of a study from people participating in it.
Processes involved in combining and inte- grating available information to choose one out of several possible courses of action.
In Sternberg's triangular model of love, these are the cognitive processes involved in decid- ing that you love another person and are committed to maintain the relationship.
Help given to members of outgroups to reduce the threat they pose to the status or distinctiveness of one's own ingroup.
A psychological state characterized by reduced self-awareness brought on by external condi- tions, such as being an anonymous member of a large crowd.
The variable that is measured in an experiment.
Norms simply indicating what most people do in a given situation.
diffusion of responsibility
A principle suggesting that the greater the number of witnesses to an emergency the less likely victims are to receive help. This is because each bystander assumes that someone else will do it.
Differential (usually negative) behaviors directed toward members of different social groups.
dismissing attachment style
A style characterized by high self-esteem and low interpersonal trust. This is a conflictedand somewhat insecure style in which the individual feels that he or she deserves a close relationship but is frustrated because of mistrust of potential partners. The result is the tendency to reject the other person at some point in the relationship to avoid being the one who is rejected.
The extent to which an individual responds in the same manner to different stimuli or events.
distraction conflict theory
A theory suggesting that social facilitation stems from the conflict produced when indi- viduals attempt, simultaneously, to pay attention to the other people present and to the task being performed.
distributive justice (fairness)
Refers to individuals' judg- ments about whether they are receiving a fair share of available rewards—a share proportionate to their contri- butions to the group or any social relationship.
A procedure for gaining com- pliance in which requesters begin with a large request and then, when this is refused, retreat to a smaller one (the one they actually desired all along).
downward social comparison
A comparison of the self to another who does less well than or is inferior to us.
drive theories (of aggression)
Theories suggesting that aggression stems from external conditions that arouse the motive to harm or injure others. The most famous of these is the frustration-aggression hypothesis.
The view that helpers respond to the needs of a victim because they want to accomplish something, and doing so is rewarding in and of itself.
Emotional reactions that are focused on or ori- ented toward other people and include feelings of compas- sion, sympathy, and concern.
The suggestion that some prosocial acts are motivated solely by the desire to help someone in need.
The extent to which a group is perceived as being a coherent entity.
Typically some biologically based feature that is used to distinguish one group and another; frequently can serve as justification for the differential treatment of those groups.
Concern over being evaluated by others. Such concern can increase arousal and so contrib- ute to social facilitation effects.
A new branch of psychology that seeks to investigate the potential role of genetic factors in various aspects of human behavior.
excitation transfer theory
A theory suggesting that arousal produced in one situation can persist and intensify emo- tional reactions occurring in later situations.
experimentation (experimental method)
A method of research in which one or more factors (the indepen- dent variables) are systematically changed to determine whether such variations affect one or more other factors (dependent variables).
Consciously accessible attitudes that are controllable and easy to report.
Attempting to change people's behaviors by use of a message that induces fear.
fearful-avoidant attachment style
A style characterized by low self-esteem and low interpersonal trust. This is the most insecure and least adaptive attachment style.
Expectations about the appropriate emotions to display or express.
A procedure for gaining com- pliance in which requesters begin with a small request and then, when this is granted, escalate to a larger one (the one they actually desired all along).
Advance knowledge that one is about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion. Fore- warning often increases resistance to the persuasion that follows.
The suggestion that frustration is a very powerful determinant of aggression.
fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias)
The tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional cues on others' behavior.
Stereotypes concerning the traits pos- sessed by females and males and that distinguish the two genders from each other.
general aggression model (GAM)
A modern theory of aggression suggesting that aggression is triggered by a wide range of input variables that influence arousal, affec- tive stages, and cognitions.
Barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified females from advancing to top- level positions.
When women and minorities are seen as better leaders because of their ability to manage crises. They are more likely to be selected as leader when the situation contains more risk.
glass cliff effect
Choosing women for leadership positions that are risky, precarious, or when the outcome is more likely to result in failure.
A collection of people who are perceived to be bonded together in a coherent unit to some degree.
The tendency of group members to shift toward a more extreme position than initially held by those individuals as a result of group discussion.
The tendency of the members of highly cohesive groups to assume that their decisions can't be wrong, that all members must support the group's decisions strongly, and that information contrary to it should be ignored.
Repeatedly performing a specific behavior so responses become relatively automatic whenever that situ- ation is encountered.
Processing of information in a perua- sive message that involves the use of simple rules of thumb or mental shortcuts.
Simple rules for making complex decisions or drawing inferences in a rapid manner and seemingly effortless manner.
Negative stereotype about how people behave in crowds at sporting events, especially applied to inci- dents involving England's soccer fans.
Aggression in which the prime objective is inflicting some kind of harm on the victim.
Publicly advocating some attitudes or behavior and then acting in a way that is inconsistent with these attitudes or behavior.
An as yet unverified prediction concerning some aspect of social behavior or social thought.
The philosophical and political values that govern a group.
illusion of truth effect
A plan for how to implement ourintentions to carry out some action.
Links between group membership and trait associations or evaluations that the perceiver may be unaware of. They can be activated automatically based on the group membership of a target.
Unconscious associations between objects and evaluative responses.
implicit personality theories
Beliefs about what traits or characteristics tend to go together.
Feelings about the self of which we are not consciously aware.
The process through which we form impressions of others.
impression management (self-presentation)
Efforts by individuals to produce favorable first impressions on others.
Those feelings induced separately or before a target is encountered; as a result, those feelings are irrelevant to the group being judged but can still affect judgments of the target.
The variable that is systematically changed (i.e., varied) in an experiment.
Groups where the norm is to stand out and be different from others; individual variability is expected and disagreement among members is tolerated.
Instances in which our ability to pro- cess information is exceeded.
informational social influence
Social influence based on the desire to be correct (i.e., to possess accurate perceptions of the social world).
When we try to make others like us by convey-ing that we like them; praising others to flatter them.
Judgments that result from com-parisons between our group and another group.
An attitudinal dimension underly- ing attachment styles that involves the belief that other people are generally trustworthy, dependable, and reliable as opposed to the belief that others are generally untrust- worthy, undependable, and unreliable. This is the most successful and most desirable attachment style.
Judgments that result from com-parisons between individuals who are members of the same group.
To privately contemplate "who we are." It is a method for attempting to gain self knowledge.
Our belief that social influence plays a smaller role in shaping our own actions than it does in shaping the actions of others.
Attitudes individuals hold concerning their jobs.
kin selection theory
A theory suggesting that a key goal for all organisms—including human beings—is getting our genes into the next generation; one way in which individuals can reach this goal is by helping others who share their genes.
The fact that offering individuals small rewards for engaging in counterattitudinal behav- ior often produces more dissonance, and so more attitude change, than offering them larger rewards.
A procedure in which witnesses to a crime are shown several people, one or more of whom may be suspects in a case, and asked to identify those that they recognize as the person who committed the crime.
Aspects of speech apart from the meaning of the words employed.
The unpleasant emotional and cognitive state based on desiring close relationships but being unable to attain them.
A combination of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors that often play a crucial role in intimate relationships.
A technique for gaining compliance in which an offer or deal is changed to make it less attractive to the target person after this person has accepted it.
Thinking involving assumptions that don't hold up to rational scrutiny—for example, the belief that things that resemble one another share fundamental properties.
The idea that although we would prefer to obtain extremely attractive romantic partners, we generally focus on obtaining ones whose physical beauty is about the same as our own.
By having seen before, but not necessarily remembering having done so, attitudes toward an objectcan be formed.
A linguistic device that relates or draws a com- parison between one abstract concept and another dis- similar concept.
Beliefs about how one's group is viewed by another group; these are often negative.
Fleeting facial expressions lasting only a few tenths of a second.
When we are categorized into different groups based on some "minimal" criteria we tend to favor others who are categorized in the same group as ourselves compared to those categorized as members of a different group.
More subtle beliefs than blatant feelings of superiority. It consists primarily of thinking minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits than they deserve and a denial that discrimination affects their outcomes.
mood congruence effects
The fact that what we remem- ber while in a given mood may be determined, in part, bywhat we learned when previously in that mood.
A focus on understanding thecultural and ethnic factors that influence social behavior.
need for affiliation
The basic motive to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships.
A situation where if one person obtains a desired outcome, others cannot obtain it.
negative-state relief model
The proposal that prosocial behavior is motivated by the bystander's desire to reduce his or her own uncomfortable negative emotions or feelings.
Effects produced by a particular cause that could not be produced by any other apparent cause.
Communication between individuals that does not involve the content of spokenlanguage. It relies instead on an unspoken language of facial expressions, eye contact, and body language.
normative focus theory
A theory suggesting that norms will influence behavior only to the extent that they are focal for the people involved at the time the behavior occurs.
normative social influence
Social influence based on the desire to be liked or accepted by other people.
Rules or expectations within a group concerning how its members should (or should not) behave.
A form of social influence in which one per- son simply orders one or more others to perform some action(s).
objectification of females
Regarding them as mere bodies that exist for the pleasure of others.
Those with measurement units that are tied to external reality so that they mean the same thing regardless of category membership (e.g., dollars earned, feet and inches, chosen or rejected).
A basic form of learning in which individuals acquire new forms of behavior as a result of observing others.
Our predisposition to expect things to turn out well overall.
optimum level of well-being theory
A theory suggest- ing that for any specfic task, there is an optimum level of subjective well-being. Up to this point, performance increases, but beyond it, performance on the task declines
The tendency to have more confidence in the accuracy of our own judgments than is reasonable.
In Sternberg's triangular model of love, the sexual motives and sexual excitement associated with a couple's relationship.
An intense and often unrealistic emotional response to another person. When this emotion is experi- enced, it is usually perceived as an indication of true love, but to outside observers it appears to be infatuation.
peripheral route to persuasion
Attitude change that occurs in response to peripheral persuasion cues, which is often based on information concerning the expertise or status of would-be persuaders.
The tendency for beliefs and schemas to remain unchanged even in the face of contradictory information.
Refers to subjective well-being, which involves global life satisfaction, satisfaction with specific life domains, frequent positive feelings, and relatively few negative feelings.
personal-versus-social identity continuum
At the personal level, the self is thought of as a unique individual, whereas at the social identity level, the self is seen as a member of a group.
Efforts to change others' attitudes through the use of various kinds of messages.
The combination of characteristics that are evaluated as beautiful or handsome at the positive extreme and as unattractive at the negative extreme.
The tendency to make optimistic pre- dictions concerning how long a given task will take for completion.
playing hard to get
A technique that can be used for increasing compliance by suggesting that a person or object is scarce and hard to obtain.
pluralistic ignorance (Chapter 5)
When we collectively misunderstand what attitudes others hold and believe erroneously that others have different attitudes than us.
pluralistic ignorance (Chapter 9)
Refers to the fact that because none of the bystanders respond to an emer- gency, no one knows for sure what is happening and each depends on the others to interpret the situation.
politicized collective identity
Recognizing shared griev- ances and engaging in a power struggle on behalf of one's devalued group.
Image of how we might be in the future— either a "dreaded" potential to be avoided or "desired" potential that can be strived for.
Negative emotional responses based on group membership.
preoccupied attachment style
A style characterized by low self-esteem and high interpersonal trust. This is a con- flicted and somewhat insecure style in which the individ- ual strongly desires a close relationship but feels that he or she is unworthy of the partner and is thus vulnerable to being rejected.
A situtation that occurs when stimuli or events increase the availability in memory or consciousness of specific types of information held in memory.
Judgments concerning the fairness of the procedures used to distribute available rewards among group members.
proportion of similarity
The number of specific indica- tors that two people are similar divided by the number of specific indicators that two people are similar plus the number of specific indicators that they are dissimilar.
Actions by individuals that help others with no immediate benefit to the helper.
Summary of the common attributes possessed by members of a category.
Actions by others that tend to trigger aggres- sion in the recipient, often because they are perceived as stemming from malicious intent.
In attraction research, the physical closeness between two individuals with respect to where they live, where they sit in a classroom, where they work, and so on. The smaller the physical distance, the greater the probability that the two people will come into repeated contact experiencing repeated exposure to one another, positive affect, and the development of mutual attraction.
Procedures in which aversive consequences are delivered to individuals when they engage in specific actions.
random assignment of participants to experimental condi- tions
A basic requirement for conducting valid experi- ments. According to this principle, research participants must have an equal chance of being exposed to each level of the independent variable
Negative reactions to threats to one's personal freedom. Reactance often increases resistance to persua- sion and can even produce negative attitude change or opposite to what was intended.
realistic conflict theory
The view that prejudice stems from direct competition between various social groups over scarce and valued resources.
Shifts in the boundaries between our ingroup ("us") and some outgroup ("them"). As a result of such recategorization, people formerly viewed as outgroup members may now be viewed a belonging to the ingroup and consequently are viewed more positively.
Groups of people with whom we identify and whose opinions we value.
Our social ties with other persons, rang- ing from casual acquaintance or passing friendships, to intense, long-term relationships such as marriage or life- time friendships.
repeated exposure effect
Zajonc's finding that frequent contact with any mildly negative, neutral, or positive stim- ulus results in an increasingly positive evaluation of that stimulus.
A strategy for making judg- ments based on the extent to which current stimuli or events resemble other stimuli or categories.
Rosenbaum's provocative proposal that attraction is not increased by similar attitudes but is simply decreased by dissimilar attitudes. This hypothesis is incorrect as stated, but it is true that dissimilar attitudes tend to have negative effects that are stronger than the positive effects of similar attitudes.
We weigh possible losses more heavily than equivalent potential gains. As a result, we respond more negatively to changes that are framed as potential losses than positively to changes that are framed as potential gains.
When someone or some object stands out from itsbackground or is the focus of attention.
Mental frameworks centering on a specific theme that help us to organize social information.
Splintering of a group into distinct factions follow- ing an ideological rift among members.
secure attachment style
A style characterized by high self- esteem and high interpersonal trust. This is the most suc- cessful and most desirable attachment style.
A tendency to direct attention away from information that challenges existing attitudes. Such avoidance increases resistance to persuasion.
Refers to the tendency to respond to a threat to one's self-concept by affirming one's compe- tence in another area (different from the threat).
Achieved by refraining from actions we like and instead performing actions we prefer not to do as ameans of achieving a long-term goal.
Putting ourselves down or implying that we are not as good as someone else.
The degree to which we perceive ourselves positively or negatively; our overall attitude toward our- selves. It can be measured explicitly or implicitly.
self-evaluation maintenance model
This perspective sug- gests that to maintain a positive view of ourselves, we dis- tance ourselves from others who perform better than we do on valued dimensions and move closer to others who perform worse than us. This view suggests that doing so will protect our self-esteem.
Attempting to present ourselves to others as having positive attributes.
Limited capacity to engage our willpower and control our own thinking and emotions.
The tendency to attribute positive out- comes to internal causes (e.g., one's own traits or char- acteristics) but negative outcomes or events to external causes (e.g., chance, task difficulty).
When we use one group as the standard but shift to use another group as the comparison standardwhen judging members of a different group.
The consistent finding that people respond positively to indications that another per- son is similar to themselves and negatively to indications that another person is dissimilar from themselves.
Negative stereotyping and discrimination directed toward people who are single.
The number of social ties each person has to others; typically these are connections people can draw on for knowledge, assistance, or other social goods.
The manner in which we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about the social world.
The process through which we com- pare ourselves to others to determine whether our view of social reality is, or is not, correct.
social comparison theory
Festinger (1954) suggested that people compare themselves to others because for many domains and attributes there is no objective yardstick to evaluate ourselves against, and other people are therefore highly informative.
Situations in which each person can increase their individual gains by acting in one way, but if all (or most) people do the same thing, the outcomes experienced by all are reduced.
Having a sense of that you know other persons because you know their reputations, often by knowing other people they know too.
Conditions in which individuals feel that they have been excluded from some social group.
social identity theory (Chapter 4)
Addresses how we respond when our group identity is salient. Suggests that we will move closer to positive others with whom we share an identity but distance from other ingroup mem- bers who perform poorly or otherwise make our social identity negative.
social identity theory (Chapter 6)
A theory concerned with the consequences of perceiving ourselves as a member of a social group and identifying with it.
The process through which we acquire new information, forms of behavior, or attitudes from otherpeople.
social learning view (of prejudice)
The view prejudice is acquired through direct and vicarious experiences in much the same manner as other attitudes.
Reductions in motivation and effort when individuals work in a group compared to when they work individually.
Composed of individuals with whom we have interpersonal relationships and interact with on a regular basis.
Rules indicating how individuals are expected to behave in specific situations.
The process through which we seek to know and understand other people.
Drawing on the emotional and task resources provided by others as a means of coping with stress.
A form of eye contact in which one person con- tinues to gaze steadily at another regardless of what the recipient does.
Can occur when people believe that they might be judged in light of a negative stereotype about their group or that, because of their performance, they mayprocessing of social information.
Our response to events that disrupt, or threaten to disrupt, our physical or psychological functioning.
Response scales that are open to interpre- tation and lack an externally grounded referent, including scales labeled from good to bad or weak to strong. Theyare said to be subjective because they can take on differ- ent meanings depending on the group membership of the person being evaluated.
Classical conditioning of attitudes by exposure to stimuli that are below individuals' thresh- old of conscious awareness.
A subset of a group that is not consistent with the stereotype of the group as a whole.
superordinate goals (Chapter 6)
Those that can only be achieved by cooperation between groups.
superordinate goals (Chapter 11)
Goals that both sides to a conflict seek and that tie their interests together rather than driving them apart.
A method of research in which a large num- ber of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior.
symbolic social influence
Social influence resulting from the mental representation of others or our relationships with them.
A method of research in which behavior is systematically observed and recorded.
Processing of information in a per- suasive message that involves careful consideration of message content and ideas.
The traits as situational sensitivities model.
Provoking statements that call attention to the tar- get's flaws and imperfections.
A technique for gaining compli-ance in which requesters offer additional benefits to target people before they have decided whether to comply with or reject specific requests.
theory of planned behavior
An extension of the theory of reasoned action, suggesting that in addition to attitudes toward a given behavior and subjective norms about it, individuals also consider their ability to perform the behavior.
theory of reasoned action
A theory suggesting that the decision to engage in a particular behavior is the result of a rational process in which behavioral options are con- sidered, consequences or outcomes of each are evaluated, and a decision is reached to act or not to act. That decision is then reflected in behavioral intentions, which strongly influence overt behavior.
Refers to small amounts of information about others we use to form first impressions of them.
Tokenism can refer to hiring based on groupmembership. It can concern a numerically infrequent presence of members of a particular category or it can refer to instances where individuals perform trivial posi- tive actions for members of out-groups that are later used as an excuse for refusing more meaningful beneficial actions for members of these groups.
Refers to the extent to which people who distribute rewards explain or justify their decisions and show respect and courtesy to those who receive the rewards.
triangular model of love
Sternberg's conceptualization of love relationships.
type A behavior pattern
A pattern consisting primar- ily of high levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and hostility.
type B behavior pattern
A pattern consisting of the absence of characteristics associated with the type A behavior pattern.
A stimulus that evokes a positive or negative response without substantial learning.
Refers to the fact that the effects of the schemas tend to persist until they are somehow expressed in thought or behavior and only then do their effects decrease.
Love felt by one person for another who does not feel love in return.
upward social comparison
A comparison of the self to another who does better than or is superior to us.
Those that only one person or group can have. So, if one group gets them, the other group can't.
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