French Artist: Marcel Duchamps
"I don't want to make a piece of art out of this."
Didn't mean to win, but got 1st Place
Shows that if "The Fountain" could get 1st Place, just as Leonardo Da Vinci's "The Last Supper," then there is no such thing as Art.
If everything makes great works of Art, then there is no Art.
French Artist: Marcel Duchamps
-Similar to "The Fountain": Meaningless
*Showed the world that anyone that helped with any type of human progression before the war, did nothing but meaningless work, not helping or improving anything.
Date: November 10, 1938
"Night of the Broken Glass"
-Jewish boy shot and killed a German Police Officer
Result: German attack on anything Jewish: Synagogues, Business', Homes.
-Attacked Jews in Street, while Police simply observed
-Half of Business' and Synagogues destroyed by Germans
*By now, if the Jews hadn't already left Germany, they did now.
-80% left for the 6 year duration of the Holocaust
-Less than 2% of Jews left in Germany
-Period where France/Britain did nothing in terms of War
From the Declaration of War(Sept. 1939) to the time France/Britain were ready/prepared to fight (May 10, 1940)
-Would've ended quickly if France/Britain responded quickly
-But sides were reluctant to start: Needed time to build up Military Forces(Tanks, Planes, Men)
-Germans(Seemingly Invincible) were prepared for War, while France/Britain were Unprepared and Suffering from Depression
Battle of Britain
Britain vs. Germany
-Germany occupied majority of Europe, while Britain Stood Alone
Churchill: "Everyone will die before we give up."
-Fought for Several years Alone: Building up Tanks/Planes/Military
-Radar System: Detect German Air Attacks (When/Where)
-Had more Tanks/Planes/Military
-Loses the War: 1st Major Defeat(Turning point in WWI)
*Considered Britain's Finest Hour
Date: July 1948
Berlin vs. Germany
Soviet Union: Power resides with Stalin
-Tired of sharing Berlin, thinks it "should be his"
-Starves Berlin into submission by cutting off connection with West Germany
-Given Political Asylum, which was Utter Humiliation for Soviet Union
-Drop Berlin supplies from Air with Cargo Planes(lifeline against the menace of Soviet Union)
-Dared Stalin to shoot down Planes: To set off WWII
*1.5 Million escape Communism, fleeing to West-Berlin
The Zimmerman Telegram
Date: February of 1916
-Ask Mexico for help against U.S. with promise of returned land taken by U.S.
-Intercepted Telegram: Leaked to Public
-All on board to go to War
-Declare war in April of 1916
*Mexico had no intention of allying with Germany because they knew they would ultimately lose the War with the U.S.
Paris Peace Conference
-Meeting between Allied forces: "What Europe would look like after WWI"
(Change in Politics, life as they knew it, would change in Europe)
*Treaty of Versailles: Set groundwork for WWi
-Clause: Forced Germany to accept responsibility for debt, damages, and fault: "War Guilt"
-Germany also forced to give territories back to individual Countries
Otto Van Bismark
Expand Prussian Influence:
-Make Germany Big enough to control other European states, but small enough to be controlled by Prussia.
-Known as "Iron Chancellor"
-Despised Parliamentary Government
-Pro: Military Expansion
France vs. Germany
-Ends Napoleon III's reign
-2 French territories annexed to Germany
Great Return Bill of 1852
-Dividing line in British History
-Re-proportioned British Parliament:
From Representational to Equal Representation
*Doubled the amount of men able to Vote
-Middle Class: Influential due to size, giving them the ability to cause Reform in Future
Arch-Duke Francis Ferdinand
Prince to King: Direct Line for Throne
-Hated Austria-Hungary because of occupation in own Country
-People try to assert independence
-Advised not to ride in Parade; Does so anyways
-Assassinated in heavily populated Serbian City
-Austria-Hungary to attack Serbian city
Ultimatum for Serbia:
-Give up Sovereignty
*Serbia refuses offer leading to beginning of WWII, due to alliance system
Concert of Europe
Alliance: France, Britain, Prussia, Austria, and Russia
-After the Congress of Vienna
-Keep Liberal forces in Check
-Assurance of Restoration Efforts, keep from being Undermined: Balance of Power that existed in Europe from the End of Napoleonic Wars(1815) to the Attack of WWI
-Major Alterations after Revolutions of 1848
Congress of Vienna
-Once Again the Monarchy of France, along with many other European Governments must be restored by:
4 Great Allies: Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia
The July Monarchy
Liberal Monarchy: France
-Offended people by making Radical/Irrational Acts, rather than Rational/Reforms:
1)Demolishing the Chamber of Depute-es
2)Attempting to Mussel the Press
3)Declaring of Louis-Phillipe as King of France
-Most liberal King of France
-Wore Middle-Class Military Attire
-Voted for his own cousin to die(Classic Liberal)
Date: 1837-1876: Monarch of Great Britain/Ireland
-Inherited throne at 18 yrs. old
"Grandmother of Europe"
-Symbolized Middle Class as they rose to power
-Lived the Middle Class life:
2. Beliefs(Marry for Love, which happened to be her 2nd Cousin, not for poly-alliances)
3. Presented herself
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
King of Sardinia:
-In 1861 seized control of Italy
1st King of Italy(Since 6th Century):
-Crimean War: Cleverly declares war with Austria, shortly after allying with Britain and Russian
-Marries Napoleon II's cousin to align France as an Ally
-Uses his connections:
When Provoking Austria, France will back him up
-Restoring order in Northern Italy
King of France: Most Liberal King Yet
-Father was known as "Louis Equality"
-Cousin of Louis XVI, but voted to execute him
Showed loyalty to Liberalism:
-Dressed like a Middle Class Military Man
-Called himself "King of the French" because the people put him in power, not "King of France" because the actual land didn't have anything to do with him being put in power.
*Power based on equality and sovereignty
-Forced to abdicate in 1848 and live in exile
-Last King of France
-Replaced Stalin(Repudiated Stalin Repeatedly)
1954-Met with all Major Communist leaders
-Stated how Stalin was responsible for Millions of Deaths
-Creates domestic reforms within Soviet Union
-Hoped to improve relations with the West/Americans
1965-Kicked out of Power/Position because he was no help with National Relations
*Leonid Brezhner would replace him for "peaceful coexistence."
Jewish: Lived in Paris
-Dadaist: poet/writer (Changed mind in 1930's)
-Problematic because Dadaists believe in nothing; Therefore, can't believe or stand for anything
*Very weird for a French Jew to believe in this, because in 1930's WWII is on the cusp and France is a Totalitarian Society
Czar Nicholas II
Russia: Not prepared to be Czar
-Not well educated, confident, or a leader
-Believed in Mysticism
Married Czar Alexander: German Woman
-Much weirder than her husband(ex. mysticism)
-Took son to Mysticism doctor who could "look into the future;" powers supposedly cured him.
Czar Nicholas II:
-Made decisions based on Mystic Doctor(Made people question his authority/ability)
-Threw a huge party
-Ran out of Food
-Riots Broke Out
-Now having a Bad Economy
-Mystic Doctor is Killed
-Doesn't help the War effort
-Situation turns into an even bigger Riot
-Riot storms Petroguard
-Nicholas has no power to stop the Riot..
The "Civilizing Mission"
-Why every European nation had African Territories except Russia because they felt Africans were "lesser civilians"(Racist)
-Inexplicable racism on the European's Part
-Many different but Main Reason was to bring civilization and Christianity to Africa
-Darwin Theory of "Only the Strong Survive" was used in saying that the Europeans were helping the "weak" from "dying off"
The Wiemar Republic
Kaiser's Government collapsed after WWI
-After Great Depression, Fascism no longer seemd the right way of Government; Making Europe:
-Most Liberal, Democratic Regime( Flourished)
-Parliament opening intellectual light
*Fascists despise Wiemar
The Civil Code
Date: Late 1800's
Britain: Victorian Age
-Middle Class lived with great ethics and codes of responsibility
"White Picket Fence" Expectations:
-Wife stayed home and did chores
-Husband had a Job and made $ to provide
-Have the Right Job, Know the Right people, Go to the Right church, and Act the Right Way