~ Bethamite (philosophy that public problems ought to be dealt with on scientific/utilitarian basis)
~ cleaning the urban environment could avert disease
~ encouraged creation of sewage system (specifically carried in pipes)
~ basis for GB's first public health law (1848)
~ handicapped by miasmatic theory
(developed in 1850s)
~ Pasteur >> pasteurization
~ contagion spread through filth, not caused by it
Why did Napoleon III rebuild Paris?
~ provided employment
~ improve living conditions
~ testify to Fr. glory
~ directed by Georges Haussman
How was the religious pattern of the 1800s different in the US than in Europe?
~ church/state had always been separate
~ there'd always been a host of denominations/religions
~ churches identified w/ ethnic groups rather than social classes
Name examples of "R & D" in the late 1800s.
theoretical discoveries >> material imprvmts & economic growth
~ Pasteur's work/germ theory
~ new fields of chemistry/electricity