(1840s) ~ Bethamite (philosophy that public problems ought to be dealt with on scientific/utilitarian basis) ~ cleaning the urban environment could avert disease ~ encouraged creation of sewage system (specifically carried in pipes) ~ basis for GB's first public health law (1848) ~ handicapped by miasmatic theory
~ idea that bad odors carried disease ~ replaced by germ theory in 1840s-50s
(developed in 1850s) ~ Pasteur >> pasteurization ~ contagion spread through filth, not caused by it
Why did Napoleon III rebuild Paris?
(mid-1850s) ~ provided employment ~ improve living conditions ~ testify to Fr. glory ~ directed by Georges Haussman
How was the religious pattern of the 1800s different in the US than in Europe?
~ church/state had always been separate ~ there'd always been a host of denominations/religions ~ churches identified w/ ethnic groups rather than social classes
Name examples of "R & D" in the late 1800s.
theoretical discoveries >> material imprvmts & economic growth ~ Pasteur's work/germ theory ~ thermodynamics ~ new fields of chemistry/electricity
Origin of Species
(1859) ~ Darwin's idea of natural selection ~ gave rise to Social Darwinism
(1840s-1890s) ~ forsake emotional style of romantics for scientific objectivity ~ Zola, Balzac, Flaubert discussed mundane subjects ~ heredity & environment determine all human behavior ~ Tolstoy's War & Peace