62 terms

ME Test (contribute if you are feeling charitable)

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1948 War
War in which Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria invaded Israel immediately after it became independent. Israelis took most of Palestinian land.
1967 War
Six day war where Israel attacked Egypt, Jordan and Syria all at once. It gained sinai peninsula, west bank, and gaza strip.
Abbasids
the dynasty that came after the Ummayads. The ummayad lost power in AD 759 because they upset many muslims especially in Persia. Persian Muslims thought that Arab Muslims got better treatment
Abu Bakr
First caliph of Islam after the death of Muhammad.
ahl al-dhimma
Non Muslim inhabitants in Islamic States (people of protection, included Christians, Jews, etc.)
Arab revolt of 1936-1939 (Great Revolt of 1936-1939)
Uprising by Palestinian Arabs against British Colonial rule as a demand for independence and opposition to mass Jewish immigration
Atatürk
Also known as Mustafa Kemal; leader of Turkish republic formed in 1923; reformed Turkish nation using Western models
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI.
bedouins
Arab nomads
caliph
Keeper of the Faith
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel.
Creation of Israel
1948 the independent state of Israel was created by the will of the UN, much to the dismay of the Palestinians.
Crusaders
Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries that fought for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims. Did this thing called the children's crusade where they sent their children to take back the land. It ended with most of the children dead or sold into slavery. Ordered by the Pope, Urban II, to "take back" the holy land.
cuneiform
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.
desalination
A process of removing salt from ocean water.
Easter
The day on which Christians celebrate Jesus' resurrection from the dead.
Five Pillars of faith
Belief of Islam: 1. There is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his messenger
2. Pray 5 times a day
3. Give charity to the poor
4. Fast during the month of Ramadan
5. Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca
Had crime
Most serious crimes. Murder. theft, robbery, damage of reputation, drinking Alcohol (depends where), or deserting faith. Punishment is death or amputation
Hajj
The Pilgrimage each Muslim must make to Mecca if they are able.
Hejira
Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina and recreated by those on Hajj.
Imam
A leader of prayer in a mosque.
Intifada II
Second Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation in 2000.
Iran Hostage crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
Kaaba
A black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine.
Khadija
First wife of Muhammad and first to convert to Islam. Encouraged Muhammad to spread the word
Koran
Holy book of Islam.
Mawali
Non-Arab converts to Islam
Men of the pen
Judges, imams, and other intellectuals (under Suleiman I the Magnificent)
Men of the sword
Military (under Suleiman I the Magnificent)
Men of negotiation
Third class of Ottoman society; merchants and artisans
Men of husbandry
Farmers and herders
Mosque
A Muslim place of worship
Oasis
A fertile place in a desert where there is water and vegetation
Ottomans
The diverse group of peoples within the Ottoman empire. Every tribe/city state/group gets the run of their land, as long as they follow a few basic rules and pay their taxes.
Passover
(Judaism) a Jewish festival (traditionally 8 days) celebrating the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt
Qesas Crime
A medium crime. Not directly addressed in the Koran, but still bad. The punishment would be decided by the victim or the victim's family in like retribution.
Qudi
A judge of the Islamic faith. Is responsible for determining the kind of crime and its suitable punishment.
Rabbi
A highly respected teacher of Jewish law or theology.
Ramadan
The ninth month of the Muslim year, during which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset.
Safavids
A Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the Persians, Ottomans and Arabs.
Saladin
The 'White Knight of Islam'. United the people of the ME, and led them to force the crusaders out of their land. (Focused mainly along the Mediterranean coast) (1100's)
Salat
5 daily prayers.
Satrap
The name of a feudal lord in the growing Islamic empire. Collected taxes and followed the central political power above them.
Sawn
Fasting during Ramadan.
Seljuks
Turkish family that lead Turks in conversion to Islam and migration into Abbasid Empire
Shahada
The confession of faith, the first of the Five Pillars and central creedal statement of Islam: "There is no god except God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."
Sharia
Islamic Law
Shia
A Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed's son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam
Sunni
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Suez Canal Crisis
The newly formed state of Israel wrested the Suez Canal from Egyptian control. It took Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan (with Palestinian aid) against Israel, France, and England to get it back in 1956.
Tazir Crime
A little crime. Not very important crimes like being drunk, bribery, or not paying a fine. Punishments vary from place to place, but they are punished with small things like fines of public reprimand.
Temple
(Judaism) the place of worship for a Jewish congregation
TeNaKh
The holy book of the Jews, it is written in Hebrew, which is considered a holy language. Its name represents its three sections; the Torah (Teachings of Moses), Neviʻim (Great Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings)
Theocracy
A government ruled by or subject to religious authority. Non-secular state.
Umayyids
Dynasty that descends from Umayya, a distinct relative of Muhammad
UN Partition Plan of Palestine
The plan to make Palestine an Independent nation in part of what is now Israel. They refused saying, 'we want all of our land back'.
Urban II
The pope that issued the crusades in 1095 CE.
Yom Kippur War
(RN), , This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.
Zakat
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
Ziggurat
A large rectangle-based, pyramid looking, center of worship and knowledge in a community.
Zionism
A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.
Zoroastrianism
A religion based off the teachings of Zoroaster. Was one of the first monotheistic religions, and was centered around the belief that humans had the choice to choose between good and evil.