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KU Biology 152 Ch.22 Quiz & Learning Curve
Terms in this set (37)
You are studying reproduction in a species of frog. Two gametes that are diploid join to form a viable zygote (F1). You raise several of these zygotes and find that they are fertile and produce viable offspring when bred with each other. Are these animals the same species as their parents?
No. They are reproductively isolated from their parents by their different chromosome count.
Different species of fruit flies occupy each of the islands in the Hawaiian island chain, a group of volcanic islands that formed one after the other. One hypothesis for how the different fruit fly species formed is that, after each new island was formed, fruit flies from existing islands colonized it and subsequently diverged. If this hypothesis is correct, it would be an example of:
allopatric speciation by dispersal
When you use a field guide to identify a species by its appearance, you are applying the
A drawback of the biological species concept is that it cannot be applied to:
extinct and asexual organisms.
Two species of antelope ground squirrels are separated by the Grand Canyon. They are hypothesized to descend from a common ancestor, populations of which were separated as the canyon formed. If this hypothesis is correct, it would be an example of:
allopatric speciation by vicariance
is the process in which two groups of organisms living in the same habitat diverge into separate species
Gus and Ida are 2 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that live at the Central Park Zoo in New York City. They are 1st generation zoo polar bears. They have lived at the zoo since 1985 and are reproductively isolated from all other polar bears. Are they a different species based on the biological species concept?
You begin an experiment with 2 populations of E. coli that are each composed of 100 cells. The cells are all genetically identical (i.e., they are clones). You grow them up in flasks on a lab bench under identical conditions with unlimited resources.
After 10,000 generations, you analyze the genome of each population. Do you expect the genomes of each population to be identical after 10,000 generations?
No, because mutation and natural selection (once genetic variation is present) were factors in this experiment.
is a special case of speciation in which new species form rapidly in response to numerous "open" ecological niches
Several species of fireflies are active on the same summer nights in the same fields. Males and females recognize one another by their distinctive flashing patterns. This is an example of what kind of reproductive isolation?
pre-zygotic, behavioral isolation
Species - as opposed to individuals or populations - are considered the ultimate evolutionary unit because:
species give rise to other species.
-species can become extinct.
-new mutations can potentially spread within a species, but not beyond it.
Biochemical systems within the stigma of a flowering plant prevent the pollen from a different species from developing a pollen tube and fertilizing its eggs. This is an example of what kind of reproductive isolation?
pre-zygotic, lock and key
When you use a field guide to identify a species by its appearance, you are applying the
Horses and donkeys can interbreed, but their offspring (mules) are infertile. This is an example of what kind of reproductive isolating mechanism?
You begin an experiment with 2 populations of E. coli that are each composed of 100 cells. The cells are all genetically identical (i.e., they are clones). You grow these populations in flasks on a lab bench under identical conditions with unlimited resources. Is the following statement about the populations true or false?
After 100 generations both populations will still be genetically the same, having accumulated the same mutations over time.
A bacteriologist is studying two asexually reproducing strains of E. coli. The two require different amounts of trace minerals for survival; on these grounds, the bacteriologist determines that they are separate species. In making his determination, he is using which species concept?
ecological species concept
In general, males and females of the same species can produce fertile offspring.
If two individuals from different species attempt to mate but fertilization fails to occur, this is likely the result of ________________. However, if such a mating produces a zygote that fails to form a viable embryo, this is likely the result of _______________.
factors pre zygotic factors; post-zygotic factors
When two populations have undergone allopatric speciation long enough to be unable to produce fertile offspring, then they are different enough to be considered two different species.
Speciation can occur in the absence of natural selection; this is particularly evidenced by speciation that results from instances of genetic drift.
All members of a species actively mate with one another. Two populations would not be considered part of the same species if they do not actively breed (even if they potentially could).
You would expect similar species with a different number of chromosomes to be genetically compatible and therefore able to reproduce
If an organism has four copies of each chromosome, then it is
_____________ is the primary force responsible for changes in allelic frequency of deleterious mutations. _______________ is the primary force responsible for changes in allelic frequency of neutral mutations.
Natural selection; Genetic drift
If two populations are reproductively isolated from one another (i.e., like certain populations of Russian warblers), they must be genetically isolated from each other and therefore cannot belong to the same species.
Which of the following represents genetic incompatibility?
Two group of snakes do not produce offspring because they have a different number of chromosomes
You are a parasitologist interested in roundworms affecting wolves. If you know two populations of wolves were separated long enough ago for them to speciate, would you expect their roundworms (derived from a common ancestor) to speciation as well? What is this process called?
Which of the following species concepts is described by a complex group of populations that are not in direct physical or reproductive contact, but do exchange genetic material through linking populations of the same species?
Which of the following statements are true regarding speciation
speciation may occur through random and non random processes
Which of the following statements are true regarding genus
A genus is composed of "similar" species, although this grouping can be subjective
Imagine that a mad scientist wants to create a new species of minions―one that is a cross between a shark and a wolf (he plans to call them "shwolves"). To his dismay, when he introduces shark sperm and wolf eggs into a petri dish, no viable embryos form. Why?
This could be an example of pre-zygotic isolation, where the proteins of the shark sperm and wolf eggs do not interact properly; however, this could also be an example of genetic incompatibility, where genomic differences between sharks and wolves prevent the formation of viable embryos.
You are an experienced naturalist and biologist and you observe two birds mating that you do not believe to belong to the same species. The eggs from this breeding do not hatch, and when you obtain one of the eggs, you find embryonic development stopped not long after fertilization. Which of the following conclusions is supported by these observations?
Post-zygotic factors prevented successful reproduction.
which of the following statements is true regarding the biological species concept
Given the generation time of certain organisms, the biblical species concept can be difficult to test
Imagine that a zoo in Sri Lanka has started an elephant-breeding program. Zookeepers have introduced an Indian and Sri Lankan elephant into the same enclosure. What will be the result of this mating?
This mating will demonstrate that these elephants are members of the same species, and will produce fertile offspring.
Which of the following species concepts might differentiate species on the basis of descent from a common ancestor?
A population of rare frogs is reduced by 90% in number when a large dam is constructed that obliterates most of their prior habitat. Which of the following is probably true?
The reduced genetic diversity of the remaining frogs makes genetic drift more likely.
While in South America, you come across what you think are two groups of birds in the same location. They are nearly identical aside from their color. After years of observation, you conclude that the birds eat similar diets and share similar behaviors but do not reproduce with each other. These groups of birds appear to be an example of ___________.
two different species on the basis of reproductive behavior
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