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Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (51)

______
10.
The
observation
that
organisms
as
dissimilar
as
whales,
humans,
and
bats
have
similar
skeletal
structures
suggested
to
Darwin
that
...
A. Only
the
best
adapted
organisms
survive
B. Changes
the
phenotype
can
be
passed
along
to
offspring
C. Dissimilar
organisms
might
have
evolved
from
a
distant
common
ancestor
D. Evolution
involves
extinction
E. Animals
were
all
created
at
the
same
time
______
11.
Jean
Baptiste
Lamarck
made
the
first
full
theory
of
evolution,
proposing
that
A. Old
species
become
extinct,
and
are
replaced
by
better
adapted
species
B. Organisms
acquire
new
traits
by
use
or
disuse
of
existing
traits
C. Traits
acquired
by
one
generation
can
be
transmitted
to
the
next
generation
D. B
and
C
are
both
part
of
Lamarck's
evolutionary
concept
E. A,
B
and
C
are
all
part
of
Lamarck's
evolutionary
concept
______
12.
Sharks,
tuna,
and
dolphins
are
different
classes
of
fast-‐swimming
marine
predators
that
have
the
same
streamlined
shape.
This
similarity
is
an
example
of..
A. Frequency
dependent
selection
B. Stabilizing
selection
C. Convergent
evolution
D. Embyonic
evolution
E. Adaptive
drift
______
13.
What
part
of
Darwin's
theory
was
inspired
by
ideas
of
Thomas
Malthus?
A. Populations produce more offspring than their environments can support
B. The favorable characteristics of a population accumulate over time
C. Natural selection can lead to dramatic phenotypic differences over thousands of
generations
D. Artificial selection exploits the genetic variation found in a wild species
E. Population sizes usually remain stable over long periods of time
______
14.
In
the
process
of
natural
selection,
successful
phenotypes
are
determined
by
...
A. Any process that prevents inbreeding
B. A combination of drift and gene flow
C. Chance events acting on small population sizes
D. A high mutation rates to create new alleles
E. Ability to reproduce in a particular environment
______
15.
To
which
population
could
the
Hardy-‐Weinberg
law
be
applied
in
order
to
determine
the
allelic
frequency
of
a
recessive
allele?
A. A population of self-fertilizing plants
B. A small group of people living on an isolated island in the Pacific Ocean
C. All individuals living in China
D. A group of thoroughbred horses that are being bred for racing
E. A population of frogs living in a pond contaminated with a mutagen
______ 16. A
gene
pool
consists
of....
A. An
interbreeding
group
of
individuals
of
the
same
species
B. The
proportion
of
a
population
having
a
specific
genotype
C. The
frequencies
of
each
type
of
phenotype
D. The
sum
of
all
the
genetic
variation
in
a
population
E. The
sum
of
all
the
genetic
variation
in
a
species
______ 17. A population is at Hardy=Weinberg equilibrium for a gene when ....
A. p = q = 0.5
B. Each type of homozygote is equally represented
C. All the different genotypes add up to 100%
D. The AA, Aa and aa genotypes are predicted by p2, 2pq and q2 , respectively
E. p + q = 1
________
18.
Spontaneous
mutations
do
not
have
an
immediate
affect
on
allele
frequencies in
a large population because:
A. Mutations
are
typically
harmful
to
gene
function
B. Mutations
only
rarely
change
a
protein's
amino
acid
sequence
C. Most
mutations
kill
the
individual
in
which
they
occur
D. Mutations
are
so
rare
that
they
are
greatly
outnumbered
by
normal
alleles
E. A
mutation
would
have
to
simultaneously
occur
in
both
a
male
and
a
female
______
19.
Which
of
these
natural
processes
might
lead
to
a
change
in
the
frequencies
of
alleles
within
a
population?
A. Genetic drift
B. Natural Selection
C. Gene flow via migration
D. Only A and B affect allele frequencies
E. All of the above can alter allele frequencies
______
20.
A
mutagen
is
any
external
agent
that
____________
A. Causes a change in the base sequence of DNA
B. Interferes with transcription
C. Interferes with translation
D. Decreases the ability of the cell to survive
E. Lowers the fitness of an individual
______
21.
The
primary
structure
of
a
protein
is
determined
by
_____________
A. The
sequence
of
amino
acids.
B. Di-‐sulfide
bridges
between
cysteine
residues
C. Non-‐covalent
interactions
between
amino
acids
D. Interaction
between
different
domains
of
the
protein
E. Hydrogen
bonds
between
components
of
a
peptide
linkage
________
22.
A
frameshift
mutation
would
occur
if
A. An
amino
acid
codon
was
altered
to
be
a
stop
codon
B. RNA
polymerase
didn't
start
at
the
first
AUG
C. An
AT
base
pair
were
substituted
for
a
GC
base
pair
in
a
gene
D. The
ribosome
was
unable
to
bind
properly
to
a
messenger
RNA
E. An
extra
DNA
base-‐pair
was
inserted
into
an
exon
of
a
gene
________
23.
A
mutation
that
changes
a
codon
that
represents
an
amino
acid
into
one
that
signals
polypeptide
chain
termination
is
called....
A. A neutral mutation
B. A nonsense mutation
C. A frameshift mutation
D. A silent mutation
E. A beneficial mutation
________
24.
____________exists
when
an
entire
genome
becomes
duplicated.
A. Aneuploidy
B. Polyploidy
C. Translocation
D. Polymorphic
genomes
E. Heterosis
________
25.
New
types
of
gene
products
can
evolve
from
existing
genes
by
_________
A. Duplication and divergence of existing genes
B. Exon exchange between genes by recombination
C. Changes in splicing patterns
D. Point mutations
E. All of the above
________
26.
In
the
gene
pool
of
a
population
with
100
individuals,
a
fixed
allele
for
a
particular
gene
locus
has
a
frequency
of
_________
A. 0
B. 0.25 0.5
C. 0.5
D. 1.0
E. Cannot be calculated based on this information
________
27.
A population of one hundred people consists of the following genotypes:
BB = 50 Bb = 30 bb =20 . What is the frequency of the B allele in this population?
A. 0.05
B. 0.20
C. 0.35
D. 0.65
E. There is not enough information to calculate the frequency of B
________
28.
Which
of
the
following
are
true
of
stabilizing
selection
A. It increases the frequency of the average phenotype
B. It reduces the variability of a trait
C. It can an arise due to compromises between different selection pressures
D. A and B are true
E. A, B and C are true
________
29.
Genetic drift may lead to ___ in a population.
A. A decrease in genetic variation
B. Random fluctuations in allelic frequency
C. Fixed alleles
D. Loss of rare alleles
E. All of the above
________
30.
The
Founder
Effect
is
an
example
of
_________
A. The high mutation rate in a small isolated population
B. The high level of inbreeding in a small isolated population
C. Genetic drift due to a population deriving from a small number of individuals
D. Gene flow from one population to another
E. Natural selection acting on a small population
1. A
2. B
3. E
4. E
5. D
6. B
7. C
8. E
9. C
10. C
11. D
12. C
13. A
14. E
15. C
16. D
17. D
18. D
19. E
20. A
21. A
22. E
23. B
24. B
25. E
26. D
27. D
28. E
29. E
30. C
31. D