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330 terms

WHAP Glossary

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Abacus
An ancient chinese counting device that used rods on which were mounted movable counters.
Absolute Monarchy
Absoulute ruler, did not follow constitution.
Afrikaners
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century.
Age grade
An age group into which children were placed in Bantu societies of early sub-Saharan Africa; children within the age grade were given responsibilities and privileges suitable for their age and in this manner were prepared for adult responsibilities
Agricultural Revolution
Neolithic Revolution, was from 8000-2000 B.C.E, Foraging to a agricultural society
Allah
Muslim name for the god of everything.
Alliance in Progress
A program of economic aid for Latin America in exchange for a pledge to establish democratic institutions; part of U.S. President Kennedy's international program.
Al-Qaeda
A terrorist group based in Afghanistan in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.
Animism
Belief that objects have a spirit and or life within them.
Anschluss
The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938 before WW2
Apartheid
the policy of racial segregation and oppression in the Republic of South Africa
Appeasement
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Aristocracy
hereditary nobility; privileged class; government by nobility; aristocrat
Artifact
object made by human beings
Artisan
a skilled craftsman
Astrolabe
instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars
Austronesian
A branch of languages originating in Oceania
Ayatollah
a traditional muslim religious ruler
Ayllus
In Incan society, a clan or community that worked together on projects required by the ruler
Bakufu
A military government established in Japan after the Gempei Wars; the emperor became a figurehead, while real power was concentrated in the military, including the samurai
Bantu-speaking peoples
Name given to a group of sub-Saharan African peoples whose migrations altered the society of sub-Saharan Africa
Battle of Tours
The battle that halted the advance of Muslim armies into Europe at a point in northern France
Benefice
In medieval Europe, a grant of land or other privilege to a vassal
Berlin Conference
To carve out Africa without the consent of the Africans.
Black Death
The common name for a major outbreak of plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, killing many people.
Bodhisattva
Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their lifetimes; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness
Boers
Dutch settlers in south Africa
Boer War
Fought between 1899 and 1902 over the continued independence of Boer republics. Resulted in British victory, but began the process of decolonization for whites in South Africa.
Bourgeoisie
city-dwelling middle class, made up of merchants, manufacturers, and professional people such as doctors and lawyers
Boxer rebellion
Chinese rebellion against foreign influence
Boyars
Russian Nobility
Brahmin
the priestly or sacerdotal category of the caste system
Brinkmanship
The Cold War policy of the Soviet Union and the United States of threatening to go to war at a sign of aggression on the part of either power
British Commonwealth
A political community consisting of the United Kingdom, its dependencies, and former colonies of Great Britain that are now sovereign nations; currently called the Commonwealth of Nations.
Bushi
regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies
Bushido
Code of conduct for Samurai during the feudal period in Japan
Caliph
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Calpulli
Aztec clans that supplied labor and warriors to leaders
Capital
money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
Cartels
Unions of independent businesses in order to regulate production, prices, and the marketing of goods.
Catholic Reformation
Sixteenth-century Catholic attempt to cure internal ills and confront Protestantism; it was inspired by the reforms of the Council of Trent and the actions of the Jesuits.
Central Powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
Chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields., Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs
Chivalry
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
civilization
a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology
Climate
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
Coalition
a temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a government
Code Napoleon
Collection of laws that standardized French law under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Collectivization
combining small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government.
Colombian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages'
Commercial revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Communism
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
Conscription
a military draft
Conservatism
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
Containment
a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
Cossacks
Peasant adventurers with agricultural and military skills recruited to conquer and settle in newly seized lands in southern Russia and Siberia.
Covenant
A solemn agreement between people or between God and man involving mutual commitments and guarantees.
Creoles
People who had Spanish or Portuguese parents but were born in Latin America.
Cubism
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
Cultural diffusion
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
Cultural revolution
Chinese movement from 1966 to 1976 intended to establish an egalitarian society of peasants and workers
Cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
Daimyo
a japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Dar al-Islam
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
A statement of political rights adopted bythe French N, Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Declaration of The Rights of Woman
A statement of the rights of women written by Olympe de Gouges in response to the Declaration to the Rights of Man.
Deism
Was a god who set the world into motion but has left the world up to use to decide for ourselves.
Democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
DNA
The blueprint of heredity
Devshirme
in the Ottoman Empire, the policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
Dharma
in Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma; it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society
Diaspora
any group migration or flight from a country or region; dispersion.
Divine right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
Domestic system
a manufacturing system whereby workers make products in their own homes with materials supplied by entrepreneurs.
Duma
Russian Parliament
Dutch learning
Western learning embraced by some Japanese in the eighteenth century
Dynasty
A series of rulers form the same family
Economic imperialism
control of a country's economy by the businesses of another nation
Edict of Milan
a ruling by Constantine that allowed Christians to openly practice their faith in the Roman empire.
Empirical research
Research based on the collection of data
Enclosure movement
practice of fencing or enclosing common lands into individual holdings
Encomienda
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Entrepreneurship
the process of starting, organizing, managing, and assuming the responsibility for a business
Estates
social class in pre-revolution France
Estates-General
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France.
Euro
The standard currency introduced and adopted by the majority of members of the European Union in January 2002.
Evangelical
of or pertaining to or in keeping with the Christian gospel especially as in the first 4 books of the New Testament
Excommunication
the most severe penalty for refusing to obey Church laws; if you were excommunicated - could not be buried on sacred ground and could not receive the sacraments
Extraterritoriality
right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation
Factor
An agent with trade privileges in early Russia
Fascism
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Feminism
the movement aimed at equal rights for women
Feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Fief
An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty
Filial piety
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
Five Pillars
beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage
Five Year Plans
Plans for industrial production first introduced to the Soviet Union in 1928 by Stalin; they succeeded in making the Soviet Union a major industrial power by the end of the 1930s
Footbinding
In China, a method of breaking and binding women's feet; seen as a sign of beauty and social position, footbinding also confined women to the household
Foraging
hunting and gathering
Fundamentalism
movement in which people believe in strictly following certain established principles of teachings
Geneva conference
1954,French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
Genocide
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
Geocentric theory
Arrangment of the solar system that places the earth at the center with the sun and planets orbiting the earth
Glasmost
A Soviet policy introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbechev emphasizing "openness" in the sharing of information and ideas.
Glorious revolution
Bloodless overthrow of King James II that ended the Dominion and established William and Mary as the new leaders.
Gold standard
a monetary standard undhttp://quizlet.com/11937722/recreate_set/#er which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold
Gothic architecture
characterized by pointed arches, high ceilings, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows
Gran Colombia
The temporary union of the northern portion of South America after independence movements led by Simón Bólivar; ended in 1830
Great Depression
a severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II.
Great Leap Forward
Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, did not work.
Green revolution
A program of improved irrigation methods and introduction of high-yield seeds and fertilizer and pesticides to improve agricultural production; the green revolution was especially successful in asia but was also used in Latin America.
Griots
Storytellers of sub-Saharan Africa who carried on oral traditions and historians
Guano
Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major trade item of Peru in the late nineteenth century
Guest workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Guomindang
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925
Hadith
The compiled work of the life and teachings of Muhammad.
Hajj
the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.
Harem
a place in the household for women and all the women available to the Sultan
Heliocentric theory
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
Hellenistic Age
Term for the era, usually dated 323-30 B.C.E., in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Helsinki Accords
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland in 1975 by the Soviet Union and western European countries.
Hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Hijrah
Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in A. D. 622; this event marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar
Holocaust
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Import substitution industrialization
An economic system aimed at building a country's industry by restricting foreign trade. It was especially popular in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil in the mid-twentieth century. (823)
Inca
This term aplies to the people of the Andean region.
Indentured servitude
the system of temporary servitude, where young men and women bound themselves to masters for fixed terms of servitude (four to five years), in exchange for passage to America, food and shelter. This method of labor was one of the largest elements of colonial population in America.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
Indo-Europeans
a group of seminomadic peoples who, about 1700 B.C., began to migrate from what is now southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent, Europe, and Southwest Asia
Indulgence
a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin
Industrial Revolution
Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power
International Monetary Fund
a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
International Space Station
A vehicle sponsored by sixteen nations that circles the earth while carrying out experiments
Investiture
the ceremony of installing a new monarch
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Janissaries
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
Jati
sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Jihad
Islamic holy war
Junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Ka'aba
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Kabuki theater
A form of Japanese theater developed in the seventeenth century that features colorful scenery and costumes and an exaggerated style of acting
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
Karma
In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life
Khan
a Mongol ruler
Kowtow
a former Chinese custom of touching the ground with the forehead as a sign of respect or submission
Kulaks
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Laissez-faire economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
Lateen sail
Triangular sail that was developed in indian ocean trade that allowed a ship to sail against the wind.
Latifunda
huge estates bought by wealthy Romans, possible because of wealth brought in through trade because of domination in W. Med.
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
Liberalism
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
Liberation theology
the belief, common in Latin America in the late 1900s, that the Roman Catholic Church should be active in the struggle for economic and political equality
Limited liability corporation
a type of business with limited liability for the owners, with the advantage of not paying corporate income tax
Magna Carta
The document that English nobles forced King John to approve in 1215, limiting the king's power and protecting the rights of the people.
Malay Sailors
Southeast Asian sailors who traveled the Indian Ocean; by 500 C.E., they had colonized Madagascar, introducing the cultivation of the banana
Mamluks
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
Manchus
Federation of Northeast Asian peoples who founded the Qing Empire.
Mandate
a territory surrendered by Turkey or Germany after World War I and put under the tutelage of some other European power until they ar able to stand by themselves
Mandate of heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
Manorialism
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
Maori
the Oceanic language spoken by the Maori people in New Zealand
Maroon societies
runaway slaves in the West Indies, Central America, South America, and North America, who formed independent settlements together., allowed the perpetuation of African culture.
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Mass consumerism
trade in products designed to appeal to a global market
Matrilineal
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
May Fourth Movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
Medieval
relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
Metropolitan
in the Eastern Orthodox Church this title is given to a position between bishop and patriarch
Mexica
The name given to themselves by the Aztec people
Middle Ages
the era in European history that followed the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500- also called the medieval period
Middle Kingdom
term applied to the rich agricultural lands of the Yangtze River valley under the Zhou dynasty
Middle Passage
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Minaret
the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
Mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Moksha
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
Mongol Peace
Period of stability and law and order across Eurasia under Mongol rule
Monotheism
belief in a single God
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Monsoon
seasonal winds
Mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
Mughal Dynasty
Rulers who controlled most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Mulato
a person of mixed African and European ancestry
Muslim
a believer or follower of Islam
Mystery religion
Religions which emphasized secret rituals and promised special rewards
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Nation-state
A country who's population share a common identity.
Natural laws
The concept, as stated by John Locke that all people are born with certain rights such as life, liberty and property.
Natural rights
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Locke's theories about government and was widely accepted among America's Founders.
Neo-confucianism
The Confucian response to Buddhism by taking Confucian and Buddhist beliefs and combining them into this. However, it is still very much Confucian in belief.
New deal
Franklin Roosevelt's economic reform program designed to solve the problems of the Great Depression
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) (p. 766)
New testament
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and of his early followers
Nirvana
any place of complete bliss and delight and peace
Nonalignment
policy that did not favor either the united states or the soviet union during the cold war
North American Free Trade Agreement
NAFTA an alliance that merges canada, mexico and the united states into a single market.
NATO
a defense alliance between nations of western Europe and n. america formed in 1949
Northern Renaissance
An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations of N. Europe; more religious nature
Northwest passage
a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America
No theater
the classical Japanese drama with music and dances performed on a simple stage by elaborately dressed actors
Opium war
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Oracle bones
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
an economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
Ozone depletion
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
Pan-Slavic movement
a russian attempt to unite all slavic nations into a commonwealth relationship under the influence of Russia
Parallel descent
In Incan society, descent through both the mother and father
Parliament
a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Great Britain)
Parliamentary monarchy
Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Pastoralism
the domestication of animals
Patriarchal
Relating to a social system in which the father is head of the family
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Peninsulares
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class
People of the Book
what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god.
Persian Gulf War
1991, a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
Perspective
an artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
Pharaoh
a ruler of ancient Egypt
Philosophes
These were the French philosophers
Pogrom
in Eastern Europe, an organized attack on a Jewish community
Polis
Greek city-state
Polytheism
belief in multiple Gods
Pope
The head of the Roman Catholic Church
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Prague Spring
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Predestination
people were predetermined to go to hell or heaven
Proletariat
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Purdah
the traditional Middle Eastern custom of seclusion for women
Purges
What Stalin ordered all who opposed him to be killed or put in prison and during the rule of Stalin millions were killed
Quechua
Andean society also know as the incas.
Quipus
complicated system of knots tied on strings of various colors used by the inca of south america to record information.
Quran
the holy book of Islam
Radicalism
Western European political philosophy during the nineteenth century; advocated democracy and reforms favoring lower classes
Ramadan
the ninth month of the Muslim year, during which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset
Reconquista
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
Red Guard
Militia units formed by young Chinese people in 1966 in response to Mao Zedong's call for a social and cultural revolutions
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Reincarnation
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
Renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
Reparations
payment for damages after a war
Repartamiento
In the Spanish colonies, a replacement for the encomienda system that limited the number of working hours for laborers and provided for fair wages
Revolution of 1905
result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.
Revolution of 1848
created support for republican government, new women's rights movements, and inspired other revolutions across Europe.
Romanticism
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
Russification
the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian Empire.
Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Samurai
feudal Japanese military leaders
Sandinistas
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
Sati
Hindu custom that called for a wife to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral pyre
Scholar-gentry
Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China.
Scientific Revolution
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
Second Industrial Revolution
Steep growth in industry and the production of steel, petrolium, electric power, and the machinery to produce other goods
Self-Strengthening movement
late 19th century movement in China to counter the challenge from the West; led by provincial leaders
Separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Sepoy Rebellion
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
Sepoys
Indian soldiers in the British army
Serf
a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
Service industries
occupations that provide a service rather than a manufactured or agricultural product
Seven Years' War
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land
Shamanism
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
Shariah
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Shi'ite
A member of the branch of Islam that supports the descendants of Muhammad as his rightful successors
Shinto
the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma
Shogun
A general who ruled Japan in the emperor's name
Shogunate
the rule of shoguns
Silk Roads
a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
Six-Day War
(1967) Short conflict between Egypt and her allies against Israel won by Israel; Israel took over the Golan Heights , The West Bank of the Jordan River; and the Sanai Peninsula.
Slash-and-burn cultivation
an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops are then planted among the ashes; also known as swidden farming
Social contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Sovereignty
self rule
Spanish-American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
Specialization of labor
To train or specialize people in certain areas of work so that people can accomplish tasks quicker
Spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Stateless society
a group of independent villages organized into clans and led by a local ruler or clan head without any central government
Steppe
dry grassland
Steppe diplomacy
The skill of political survival and dominance in the world of steppe nomads; it involved the knowledge of tribal and clan structure and often used assassinations to accomplish its goals
Stock market
A system for buying and selling shares
Stoicism
Most popular of the Hellenistic philosophies.
Suez Canal
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea; isthmus of suez 1869.
Sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
Sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country.
Sunni
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Syncretism
a blending of two or more religious traditions
System of checks and balances
constitutional system in which each branch of government places limits on the power of other branches
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
Tanzimet Reforms
19th century reforms by Ottoman rulers designed to make the givernment and military more efficient
Tea ceremony
A Japanese ritual in which tea is prepared, served, and drunk in a certain way.
Tehran Conference
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
Ten commandments
a set of laws for responsible behavior, given to Moses by God
Theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
Tiananmen square
Beijing site of a 1989 student protest in favor of democracy; the chinese military killed large numbers of protestors.
Torah
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
Treaty of Brest-litovsk
Treaty in which Russia lost to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the WWI.
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
Treaty of versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Triangular trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Tribute
tax levied by a ruler; payment made by one nation to another in acknowledgment of submission; mark of respect (such as praise or gift); Ex. pay tribute to
Truman doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Twelve tables
the earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law. The codification of roman laws.
Umma
the community of all Muslims
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
Universal Male Suffrage
the right of all males to vote in elections
Untouchables
The social devision in hinduism which people fell below the caste system, not a real class.
Varna
a basic subdivision of humanity in the Hindu caste system
Vassal
a person under the protection of a feudal lord to whom he or she owes allegiance; a subordinate or dependent; a servant
Vedas
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Vice royalty
by mid 1500s Spanish America consisted of two great viceroyalties or units of govt. - Mexico & Peru. With 22 bishoprics and a Univ. in each. (Universities of Lima and Mexico pre-date Harvard)
Wahhabi rebellion
Early 19th century attempt to restore ottoman power through a return to traditional Islam and strict shariah law
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Welfare state
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
World Bank
a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
Xenophobia
fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
Yalta Conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
Yin and yang
two forces in the universe, according to Chinese Theory: Yin is the passive, negative force, and Yang the active, positive force
Young Turks
group of revolutionary and nationalistic Turks who revolted against Ottoman empire in 1908 attempting to make reforms and then sided with the central powers in WWI
Zaibatsu
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.
Ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Zoroastrianism
dual gods of equal power to form early monotheism; Persian; cosmic struggle over good and bad; those that do good go to heaven and bad go to hell; influenced Judaism and Christianity
World Trade Organization WTO
An international organization begun in 1995 to promote and organize world trade.