E. Geog Unit 2 - Changing economy of the UKb- topic 5
Terms in this set (14)
A piece of land that has been used and abandoned, and is now awaiting some new use
Fischer Clark model
A generalised description of how societies' employment structures change as they develop
An area in which there is a damaging lack of the material benefits that are considered to be basic necessities e.g. employment, housing etc.
Land on which factories or houses have been demolished
Employment structure - Fischer Clark model
The proportions of people who work in primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary jobs
Work where people are formally employed, with permanent jobs and regular pay
The part of economic activity that pays attention to environmental issues.
Remarkable - makes goods out of old material
Architects - green buildings
Vestas - turbines
Forms of employment that are not officially recognised e.g. people working for themselves on the streets of developing cities
That period in development of a society when manufacturing industry has yet to develop
Growth in areas that have experienced decline in the past
Person who works away from the office through the use of the internet
Primary - farming and raw materials
Secondary - Manufacturing
Tertiary - Services
Quaternary - Research and development (green industries)
North East England
• Industry once dominated by coal mining, iron and steel production, shipbuilding and chemicals but declined rapidly in 20th and 21st centuries due to foreign competition and high land and labour costs
• The chemicals industry is still important, but employs fewer people due to automation and improved technology. It is a centre for biofuel research.
• The Nissan car factory in Sunderland is an important part of the recovery of the area. Other newer industries include the manufacture of North Sea oil and gas platforms.
• Some government departments were relocated to the area.
• Sunderland is becoming a centre for quaternary industry, science and high technology.
• Unemployment is fairly high (10.3% in 2013)
South East England
• Centre for service industries, e.g. health, education and transport.
• Important oil refineries at Southampton.
• New, light industries in the M4 corridor, e.g. electronics and light-engineering
• Car production, e.g. at Oxford
• Many financial and business service industries.
• Unemployment is low (6.0% in 2013)
Reasons for these differences
The South East:
• Has good communication links to Europe and the rest of the UK
• Has a large pool of skilled and educated people - people migrate to the area from other parts of the UK/world as it provides better job opportunities
• Is less affected by decline in industrialisation because there were fewer heavy industries.
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