F. Geography - Unit 2 - The challenges of an Urban World
Terms in this set (23)
Urbanisation in MEDC, UK
1750 - industrial and agricultural revolutions - people move from countryside to the cities, as less labour needed in the countryside
1900 - cities grow as rural-depopulation occurs.
2012 - 80% of population in urban areas.
Urbanisation in LEDC
fewer jobs in countryside - push people
Speed of urbanisation MUCH quicker
High fertility rates in cities
the amount of land that is required to provide an area with the energy, water and materials it uses. The footprint also calculates how much pollution is created by burning oil, coal and gas, and it works out how much land is needed to absorb the pollution and waste created
a measure of our carbon emissions and are included in our eco-footprints
the area that could support a place with everything they require
Sphere of influence
the distance that resources travel to a city - e.g. as lots of London's resources now come from all over the world their sphere of influence has increased greatly over the last few years
a piece of land that has been used and abandoned, and is now awaiting some new use
a piece of land that has not been used or built on before
charges that vehicles have to pay to drive into the centre of London
choosing to buy products that are environmentally friendly, encouraging us to reduce our consumption of resources
diposal of rubbish by burying it snd covering it over with soil
Ciies that have policies to try toreduce their impact on the environment and surrounding area eg London and Curitiba
Pollution in cities
Energy production - emissions from burning gas, oil and coal.
Industry - pollution into water supplies and air pollution
Household waste - landfill
The amount of resources used by a person, measured on Earth as acres.
Made up of land used for farming, fishing, industry, housing, recreation etc.
Footprints in MEDCS - London
Footprint extends past city boundary
Food - 90% Imported from outside the UK
Waste - 70% sent to outside the city
Energy usage - higher than country average
Pollution - Higher than country average
Transport - all based upon high energy usage - air miles
A green city - London?
Transport - Congestion charge/Underground/Bike schemes
Energy - Bedzed - Zero energy housing developments
Energy - solar panels and mini turbines
childrens nursery and local shops and facilities
face south to gather heat and light
natural materials used
low energy bulbs
Bus routes and public transport/ cycle routes
1. Pedestrianise the city centre
2. Public transport on biofuels
3. green spaces around rivers - no damage by floods
4. recycling - 5kg of waste= 1 kg of food
Population over 10 million
MEDC Mega cities
HQs of TNCs
LEDC Mega cities
fewer TNCs HQs
large areas covered
Spatial growth MEDC
Spatial growth LEDC
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
dangers from fire
no clean water, electricity or services
high crime rates
disease due to poor sanitation
Pollution in LEDCs
Traffic congestion and poorly maintained cars
rivers and seas used as dustbins
wells use water supplies at an unsustainable rate
urban sprawl destroys the countryside
Examine the advantages and disadvantages of attempts to make a city in the developing world less polluted. (8 marks)
Mexico City is trying several measures to reduce pollution.
1. Govt provides spare parts for the local transport companies to reduce emissions.
2. cars are banned for half a week entering the city. Odds and Evens on their number plates.
1. More sewerage plants
2. promote rain water harvesting
Each idea must be evaluated for the benefit and cost.