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Biology Harrod: Chapter 12 CP1
Terms in this set (51)
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA
group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein
process in which cells become specialized in structure and funcation
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message by inserting of deleting a nucleotide
process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
collection of codons of mRNA, each of which directs the incorporation of a particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis
a DNA sequence of approximately 130 base pairs, found in many homeotic genes that regulate development. Genes containing this sequence are known as homeobox genes, and they code for transcription factors, proteins that bind to DNA, and they also regulate the expression of other genes
a class of regulatory genes that determine the identity of body parts and regions in an animal embryo. Mutations in these genes can transform one body part into another
a group of homeotic genes clustered together that determine the head to tail identity of body parts in animals. All of these genes contain the homeobox DNA sequence
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
messenger RNA (mRNA)
type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
chemical of physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and may cause the mutation
change in the genetic material of a cell
short DNA region, adjacent to the promoter of a prokaryotic Oberon, that binds repress or proteins responsible for controlling the rate of transcription of the operon
in prokaryotes, a group of adjacent genes that share a common operator and promoter and are transcribed into a single mRNA
What happened during Griffith's experiment?
R strain of bacteria was injected into mouse. Mouse lived.
S strain of bacteria was injected into a mouse. Mouse died.
Heat-killed S strain of bacteria injected into mouse. Mouse lived.
Heat-killed S strain and R strain were mixed and injected into mouse. Mouse died.
What makes up a nucleotide in DNA?
Pentose sugar (deoxyribose)
Results of DNA replication
Results in two new DNA molecules. Both made of one old strand of DNA and one new strand of DNA.
What happens to DNA during mitosis?
DNA molecules will be replicated
Nitrogenous bases of DNA and RNA
DNA - Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
RNA - Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine
How many codons it takes to code for an amino acid
A codon is 3 consecutive nucleotides.
1 codon will specify an amino acid
Where the RNA molecule is formed during transcription
During transcription, RNA is formed in the Nucleus
Different types of RNA and what they do
tRNA- transfers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis
mRNA- messenger RNA carries the blueprints for protein synthesis from the DNA
rRNA- ribosomal RNA holds the mRNA in place and finds the start codon for protein synthesis
Deletion, Insertion, and substitution
How proteins affect gene expression
Proteins that bind to regulatory sites on DNA determine whether a gene is expressed
What the lac repressor does and where it binds
Turns off the lac operon by binding to the operator region of DNA. Creates protein that breaks down lactose
What process copies DNA?
DNA is copied and duplicated in a process called replication
Where DNA is located
Located in the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell
Located in the cytoplasm in a prokaryotic cell
What sugar makes up RNA
Ribose is the pentose sugar in RNA
Which RNA molecule carries amino acids?
tRNA carries the amino acids to the ribosomes
Making a mRNA molecule based on the DNA
What happens during translation
Cell used information from mRNA to produce proteins
What instructions do genes carry
Information for assembling proteins
Different mutations and how they affect the nucleotides
Point mutation - Effects a single nucleotide
(substitution, deletion, insertion)
Frameshift mutation - shifts the reading frame of the mRNA
Chromosomal mutation - changes the conformation of genes on a chromosome
Tells the RNA polymerase where to start transcription
Parts of a eukaryotic gene
TATA box - signals transcription where RNA polymerase to bind
Promoter sequence - signals where RNA polymerase to bind
Enhancer sequences - helps increase the rate of transcription
They are going to determine an animal's basic body plan
How DNA is "unzipped" in DNA replication
DNA helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds and the DNA unwinds
Function of a tRNA molecule (and what it looks like)
Transfers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis
What must happen to DNA before RNA is made?
RNA polymerase must unzip the DNA before RNA is made
What is a mutation?
A change in the genetic makeup of an organism
What happens to the lac repressors in E. coli when lactose is present?
Lactose binds to the repressor, changing its conformation. This makes the repressor fall of the DNA and start the transcription process.
What is a bacteriophage?
Virus that contains a protein coat and a DNA core. Used in Hershey and Chases experiment to determine DNA transferred genetic material
How to give the antiparallel strand of DNA
Take DNA and make it a protein based on sequence given
DNA - GGCCTACATAACU
Codons - AUG-UAU-UGA
Describe structure of DNA
DNA has a double helix shape. Each DNA is made of a chain of nucleotide. Nucleotides are made up of deoxyribose, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases. Nitrogenous bases pair across strands by hydrogen bonds. Adenine bonds with thymine and cytosine bonds with guanine.
Contrast main functions of the 3 RNA molecules
mRNA- is a copy. of DNA. mRNA will serve as a blueprint for making proteins.
tRNA- transfers amino acids to ribosomes. Serves as a carrier for the amino acids.
rRNA- holds the mRNA in place. Finds the start codon. Help Bing amino acids together to form polypeptide chain.
Why some point mutations cause greater changes in proteins than others
Point mutations include substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Insertions and deletions can have a greater effect on proteins. This is because they can shift the entire reading frame of and change the entire conformation of the proteins. This can have adverse side effects in an organism and cause problems with gene expression. Substitutions are less dangerous. They usually only effect one amino acid. This is not as serious as a frameshift mutation.
The process of translation
process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins. In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA)—produced by transcription from DNA—is decoded by a ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide
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