CompTIA IT Fund - Lesson 5-8 Mid Term
Terms in this set (244)
an object that stores information on a computer
operating system uses this type of file
files accessed by users
common file types
documents - audio - image - video
indicates a file's type
link or pointer to a program, file or folder represented by a small icon
container object that can store your files in an organized manner
another name for a folder
folder within a folder
characters not permitted in a folder/file name
managing user access to files or folders
permission that grants user read only, not write
permission that allows both read and write
Windows utility application that offers a single view of all the resources and information that you can access on the computer
FE: bar displays the address of an object
FE: located in the left pane of the window; it enables you to scroll and directly access folders on your PC, your OneDrive files and folders, drives and devices connected to your computer, or other computers on the network
FE: displayed below the title bar; It can show a list of common tasks depending upon the selected object or objects. It can be collapsed to give you more room to view files and folder, a useful feature on smaller screens
FE: displays a list of files and subfolders within a folder; It consists of column headings that help in arranging the contents in various categories such as name, size, and type of file.
FE: pane displays a preview of files such as documents, presentation slides, and images without opening them in an application.
FE: displays the file properties such as file name, file type, author, last modified, size, and other properties
FE: bar displays the number of items in the selected location
FE: consists of four buttons: Back, Forward, Recent Locations and Up
FE: bar enables you to locate documents within the file structure.
allows you to see the most recent changes
Shortcut key combos
enable users to perform the same actions that are normally performed by using the mouse, but instead by using the keyboard.
key combo for copying a file/folder
key combo for cutting a file/folder
key combo for pasting a file/folder
key combo for deleting a file/folder
key combo for saving a file/folder
key combo for displaying the help window
key combo for renaming a file/folder
key combo for displaying the properties of a file/folder
key combo for selecting all of the contents of a folder
systems that are organized in the shape of a pyramid, with each row of objects linked to objects directly beneath it
undo last action
reversing a mistake in the Windows environment
container object located on the desktop that temporarily stores deleted files
characteristics that can be associated with a file or folder that provide the operating system with important information about the file or folder and how it is intended to be used by system users.
Indicates that a file has not been backed up.
Hides a file from view in file management tools such as File Explorer, Computer in Windows 8, or My Computer in Windows XP.
Enables users to read the contents of a file or execute it (if a program but prevents users from changing the contents of a file.
Indicates that a file is used by the operating system.
This Windows-specific attribute enables the Windows Indexing Service to create an index of the file to speed up the Search function.
view the items as lists with or without details, or as various-sized icons.
process of reducing the size of a file
easy to transfer
a major advantage of compressing a file
example of program that compresses files
restoring a compressed file to it's original size
a picture, or image, of what is displayed on your computer monitor.
key combo for capturing a screen on Windows 8
desktop app that helps capture anything on the Desktop
Default file type that Snipping Tool saves as
features: putting a lock on a screen after the device times out
after a screen times out, a secret number or phrase is required to unlock the device
a security measure that locks the device if it is every stolen so the thief cannot access the device's' contents
a method used to remove any sensitive data from a mobile device and permanently delete it.
used to locate devices if they are ever lost or stolen
a service which allows the device to back it's contents up to the cloud
Example: Trend Micro Mobile Security
can resolve security issues and systems flaws that present a security risk.
wireless technology that facilitates short-range wireless communication between devices; 30 feet max range
example is using a hands-free device in a car
a device broadcasting their name to any other Bluetooth device
a process that allows a mobile device to connect to a Bluetooth device
Near Field Communication
is a standard of communication for mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, that are in very close proximity, usually when touching or being only a few inches apart from each other.
Apple Pay and Android Pay utilize this wireless technology to complete transactions
Post Office Protocol V3
a protocol that enables an email client application to retrieve email messages from a mailbox on a mail server.
Internet Mail Access Protocol V4
a protocol that enables a client to retrieve messages from a mail server. With _____, messages generally remain on the server while the client works with them as if they were local. ____enables users to search through messages by keywords and to choose which messages to download locally. Messages in the user's mailbox can be marked with different status flags that denote states such as "deleted" or "replied to." The messages and their status flags stay in the mailbox until explicitly removed by the user. Unlike POP3, ____enables users to access folders other than their mailbox.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
used to send email from a client to a server or between servers. It uses a store-and-forward process, in which the sender starts the transfer. An ____server can store a message until the receiving device comes online. At that point, it contacts the device and forwards the message. If all devices are online, the message is sent quickly.
the process of automatically merging and updating common data that is stored on multiple devices - data like contacts, apps, email, pictures, music and videos
Exchange Active Sync
enables mobile devices to connect to an Exchange Server to access mail, calendars, and contacts.
Starting with your finger off the screen, touch the screen on the item you wish to activate. Then immediately pull your finger away from the screen. This is comparable to clicking an item with a mouse.
Tap and Hold
Tap an item and continue to hold your finger steady until a shortcut menu appears or the app icons jiggle.
Tap an item twice in rapid succession.
Starting with your index finger and thumb apart from each other, touch both to the screen on the item you want to ____. Without releasing the screen, move your fingers together, and then release the screen.
With all five fingers making contact with the screen, pinch to quickly return to the Home screen.
Stretch an item to zoom in or make it larger. Starting with your index finger and thumb together, touch both to the screen on the item you want to stretch. Without releasing the screen, move release the screen.
Starting with your finger off the screen, touch the screen on the item you wish to _____. Without releasing the screen, drag your finger across the screen. You can slide a control by swiping the button to the left or right.
Tap and hold an item and then move the item to drag it to a new location.
____ your finger up or down on the screen to scroll through the items displayed on the screen. This gesture uses the concept of kinetics to emulate the feeling of sliding sheets of paper. A ___is quicker than a swipe.
Slide controls by swiping left or right to change the setting.
the name for when your screen is in landscape or portrait mode
accelerometer reads and measures the orientation of the device by using a sensor that can measure the acceleration of the direction the device is moving in order to reposition the screen.
_____changes the orientation of the device by reading the x and y coordinates as the device is moved to quickly update the orientation of the screen.
setting to quickly disconnect a mobile device from Wi-Fi and cellular connections, disabling the ability to send and receive calls, email, and text messages.
are compact software programs that are developed to perform a predefined function such as Calendar, Google Maps and Instagram
could be a software-based event caused by unknowingly downloading malicious code from the Internet.
for individuals who have the skills to gain access to computer systems through unauthorized or unapproved means.
hacker who discovers and exposes security flaws in applications and operating systems so that manufacturers can fix them before they become widespread problems.
a hacker who discovers and exposes security vulnerabilities for financial gain or for some malicious purpose.
also discover and publicize security problems, but without the organization's knowledge or permission. They consider themselves to be acting for the common good.
any unwanted software that has the potential to damage a system, impede performance, or create a nuisance condition.
A piece of code that spreads from one computer to another by attaching itself to other files. The code in a ____ executes when the file it is attached to is opened. Frequently, _____are intended to enable further attacks, send data back to the attacker, or even corrupt or destroy data.
A piece of code that spreads from one computer to another on its own, not by attaching itself to another file. Like a virus, a ____ can enable further attacks, transmit data, or corrupt or erase files.
A crafty type of malware that is itself a software attack and can pave the way for a number of other types of attacks. There is a social engineering component to executing it.
A piece of code that sits dormant on a target computer until it is triggered by a specific event, such as a specific date. Once the code is triggered, the ____ ____ detonates, and performs whatever actions it was programed to do. Often, this includes erasing and corrupting data on the target system.
Stealthily installed malicious software that is intended to track and report the usage of a target system, or to collect other data the author wishes to obtain. Data collected can include web browsing history, personal information, banking and other financial information, and user names and passwords.
Software that automatically displays or downloads advertisements when it is used. Although not all ____ is malicious, many ____ programs have been associated with spyware and other types of malicious software. Also, it can reduce user productivity by slowing down systems and simply by creating annoyances.
Code that is intended to take full or partial control of a system at the lowest levels. _____ often attempt to hide themselves from monitoring or detection, and modify low-level system files when integrating themselves into a system. _____can be used for non-malicious purposes such as virtualization; however, most _____ infections install backdoors, spyware, or other malicious code once they have control of the target system.
____is an email-based threat that presents various advertising materials, promotional content, or get-rich-quick schemes to users. The messages can quickly fill a user's inbox and cause storage issues. ____can also carry malicious code and other types of malware.
_____is malicious software that prevents you from using your computer. It usually displays a message stating that you must pay a fee or face some other penalty before you can access your files and computer again. Paying the ransom doesn't necessarily mean that you will regain access to your files or computer.
social engineering attack
a type of attack that uses deception and trickery to convince unsuspecting users to provide sensitive data or to violate security guidelines.
This is a human-based attack where the goal is to look over the shoulder of an individual as he or she enters password information or a PIN. _____ can happen in an office environment, a retail environment, at an ATM or at the entryway of a secure physical facility.
This is a human-based or software-based attack where the goal is to pretend to be someone else for the purpose of identity concealment. ______can occur in Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, network adapter's hardware (Media Access Control [MAC]) addresses, and email. If employed in email, various email message headers are changed to conceal the originator's identity.
This is a human-based attack where an attacker pretends to be someone he is not. A common scenario is when the attacker calls an employee and pretends to be calling from the help desk.
This is an email-based or web-based attack that is intended to trick the user into performing undesired actions, such as deleting important system files in an attempt to remove a virus. It could also be a scam to convince to give up important information or money for an interesting offer.
email-based; the attacker sends an email that seems to come from a respected bank or other financial institution. The email claims that the recipient needs to provide an account number, Social Security number, or other private information to the sender in order to verify an account.
done by redirecting a request for a website, typically an e-commerce site, to a similar-looking, but fake, website; meant to trick the user into putting in information to the site
This is a human-based attack where the goal is to extract personal, financial, or confidential information from the victim by using services such as the telephone system and IP-based voice messaging services (Voice over Internet Protocol [VoIP]) as the communication medium. This is also called voice phishing.
This is a form of phishing that targets individuals who are known to possess a good deal of wealth. It is also known as spear phishing. _____ targets individuals that work in Fortune 500 companies or financial institutions whose salaries are expected to be high.
an Internet messaging (IM)-based attack similar to spam that is propagated through IM instead of through email.
the act of looking through trash to find confidential information which includes hard drives and paper copies of information
is any type of attack in which the attacker attempts to obtain and make use of passwords illegitimately.
simplest type of password attack and involves an individual making repeated attempts to guess a password by entering different common password values, such as the user's name, a spouse's name, or a significant date.
the act of taking a password by various means, including sniffing network communications, reading handwritten password notes, or observing a user in the act of entering the password.
automates password guessing by comparing encrypted passwords against a predetermined list of possible password values.
brute force attack
attacker uses password-cracking software attempt every possible alphanumeric password combination, continuously until the password breaks
hybrid password attack
utilizes multiple attack vectors including dictionary, brute-force, and other attack methodologies when trying to crack a password.
physical threat: the idea of an employee destroying equipment because he/she is disgruntled
physical threat: like the power going out
physical threat: weather related problems like tornadoes and snow storms
people can cause a number of physical threats.For example, a backhoe operator may accidentally dig up fiber optic cables and disable external network access. Alternatively, a disgruntled employee may choose to exact revenge by deliberately cutting fiber optic cables.
set, is a serious network environment security threat because it can destroy hardware and therefore the data contained in it. In addition, it is hazardous to people and systems. You need to ensure that key systems are installed in a ____-resistant facility, and that there are high-quality ____detection and suppression systems on-site so that the damage due to ____is reduced.
hurricanes and tornadoes
Catastrophic weather events such as _____ are major network security threats due to the magnitude of the damage they can cause to hardware and data. You need to ensure that your information systems are well-contained and that your physical plant is built to appropriate codes and standards so that damage due to severe weather is reduced.
A ___is another major network security threat that can cause as much damage as fire can. Your organization should check the history of an area to see if you are in a ___plain before constructing your physical plant, and follow appropriate building codes as well as purchase ___insurance.
___________especially heat, can cause some sensitive hardware components to melt and degrade, resulting in data loss. You can avoid this threat by implementing controls that keep the temperature in your data center within acceptable ranges.
_____can cause computer components, data storage media, and other devices to rust, deteriorate, and degrade, resulting in data loss. You can avoid this threat by ensuring that there is enough ventilation in your data centers and storage locations, and by using temperature and humidity controls and monitors.
physically taking an item or using software illegally
computer hardware most often stolen
most powerful account on a computer and should be protected with a strong password.
Access to use most of the computing software on the computer. However, higher permission is required to uninstall or install software and hardware.
Limited computer access to individuals without a user account.
network security measure in which a computer user or some other network component proves its identity in order to gain access to network resources.
The claim of identity made by the user when entering a user name and password.
verification of the claim of an identity
The action taken as a result of verifying the claim.
a password, an ID card or a fingerprint
any authentication scheme that requires validation of two or more authentication factors.
access control property that you can use to provide users with one-time authentication to multiple resources, servers, or sites
system will lock itself out if too many password attempts fail
use administrator-defined rules to inspect traffic flowing in and out of a device. They look for and block malicious packets.
a method in which attackers gain access to unauthorized information on a wireless device by using a Bluetooth connection within the 30-foot Bluetooth transmission limit.
a method used by attackers to send out unwanted Bluetooth signals from mobile phones and laptops to other Bluetooth-enabled devices.
text file that is created by a website and placed on a computer's hard drive to store information that is used to identify users and, possibly, to prepare customized web pages for them.
also referred to as session cookies, are stored on a computer only for the duration of the web session.
cookie is stored on a computer, the browser sends the cookie back to the originating website to be reread or updated on any subsequent visit or request from that website.
a local storage area that holds the files saved by a web browser to decrease the time it takes to reload a web page.
Temporary Internet Files
browser cache for Internet Explorer
enables the browser to process specific types of content; like Adobe Flash
adds additional features to the browser and becomes part of the browser application...like Ad- Blocker
an electronic document that provides for the secure exchange of information over a network
This could appear if the date and time are wrong on your computer while browsing the Internet
Your home page in your browser has been changed to something other than what you configured it to be.
Additional toolbars have been added to your browser.
Additional programs have been installed and you did not install them.
Personal Identifying information
any information that can be used to determine who a person is.
study of a person's efficiency at the workplace as it relates to his or her health, safety, and productivity.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Restriction of Use of Hazardous Substances
compliance directive launched in 2006 and enforced by the European Union that aims to restrict certain dangerous substances commonly used in electronic devices.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
a directive launched in 2003 in Europe that serves a very similar purpose as the RoHS. It imposes the responsibility for the disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the manufacturers of such equipment.
donating, selling, recycling or shipping to vendors
monitors have a high concentration of lead, which could be a safety hazard if not disposed of properly.
an input device that contains toxic materials that, if thrown in the trash, may prove an environmental hazard.
Lithium-ion ____used in laptops are also typically free of toxic materials and are safe to throw away normally. Due to a lack of cost-effectiveness, these _____are typically not recycled at this point in time.
Some, such as carbon black, may be carcinogenic to humans in large quantities. You should avoid throwing these cartridges in the trash.
Functioning _____ are good candidates for donation or re-selling, but you should take care to wipe all data on the drive before giving it away.
temp, humidity, dust, EMI
Fans, ozone filters, dust filters
Power and Energy Efficiency
LCDs, SSDs, green SATA HDDs, NAS devices, Bluetooth V4 are examples of what...
Feature of Windows OS that can help reduce the amount of power you consume
a device that attaches to a power outlet in order to provide more outlets for you to use. This is convenient for providing power to multiple devices located in the same basic space.
provides the additional outlets of a power strip with the added benefit of protecting connected devices from surges.
uninterruptible power supply
able to provide power to connected devices in the event of a general power failure without interruption.
occurs when a path is created that allows electrons to rush from a statically charged body to another with an unequal charge.
antistatic strap; antistatic bag; antistatic mat
management involves installing and updating operating system features, applications, and drivers, as well as obtaining the appropriate licenses.
changed every time the software is upgraded or newer features have been added to it.
The _______ deal with central processing unit (CPU) specifications, random access memory (RAM) and hard disk space, display adapters, and peripherals.
the process of replacing a software application completely with a newer version.
upgrades include a version change of an operating system, productivity applications, security utilities, or various other tools.
feature of an operating system or a software application that enables updates to be downloaded and installed automatically on a system at a scheduled time or a certain frequency
have multiple licensing
typically entitle the IT admin to a product or activation key, which you use to activate the software on a computer.
_______your copy of a software application helps prevent software piracy.
is a type of information protection scheme that enables you to store copies of critical files and folders on another medium for safekeeping.
Backups protect against...
used by Windows 8.1, it is a way to backup your files automatically
Daily, Weekly or Monthly
Backup Storage Media
Local or offsite/Cloud
the entire state of an operating system and its corresponding software, by loading the image from a storage medium such as a DVD-ROM or USB thumb drive.
Be sure to look for these obvious problems before delving too deeply into troubleshooting mode.
check the physical connections
making sure devices are plugged in and connected; connecting to right port
check external issues
checking to see if there is power to the computer; checking loose power cords; check for physical damage
Check the adapter
Sometimes, the device is not at fault and you check the other parts that it is connected to
Check Device Manager
An exclamation point (!) or X in red or yellow over a device indicates there is a problem. The Properties sheet of a device has a Device Status box that indicates whether the device is working properly. This box also contains a Troubleshoot button that accesses topics in the Help and Support Center.
Help and Support Center
This Windows utility can guide you through the things you should check when troubleshooting a particular device problem.
Keyboard plugged into mouse port.
Keyboard interface contains bent or
User attempted to connect the
keyboard by using a PS/2-to-USB
adapter on a keyboard that does not
support this translation.
Keyboard port on the computer is damaged.
No input is sent when keys are pressed on a keyboard.
Mouse is not plugged in.
Mouse is plugged into the keyboard
Mouse was connected after the
computer was started.
Some pointing devices require special
drivers and possibly additional software
to function properly.
Pointing device is not supported by the
Driver for the pointing device is
corrupted or outdated.
Mouse is not working
The default gateway address might be
configured incorrectly, the gateway
might be down, or there might be a
problem with the Internet Service
Local network connection but no Internet connection.
Printer is not plugged in.
Printer not supported by the operating
Driver for the printer is missing, corrupted, or outdated.
Unable to print
This could indicate a physical problem
such as a loose cable or a defective
On IP networks, check for a missing or incorrect IP address.
No network connectivity or connection lost.
The device driver is not compatible
with the hardware.
The driver software for the device is
The latest driver has not been installed.
Hardware device not working properly.
If there are errors during the Power On Self-Test, the system might display a numeric error message. Typically, you can press F1 to acknowledge the error and continue booting. For other ____errors, a series of audible beeps will tell you if a problem has been detected. The sequence of beeps is a code that indicates the type of problem.
Power On Self Test
Invalid boot disk
non-bootable disk in the drive; bad hard drive; no OS on HDD; CMOS boot order set wrong
complementary metal oxide semiconductor
basic input output system
Failure to boot
hardware problem with HDD; missing Boot.ini files; check HDD controller and connections
when the system tells you that the operating system cannot be found, you have a:
on startup, a message is displayed stating that something is missing; it could be an important system file that needs to be replaced using a utility or copying from an OS disc
system files fail to open or are missing
______ should not be deleted or become corrupt during normal
system operation, so these errors are rare. They might indicate an
underlying hardware problem, a disk error, or the presence of a computer virus.
Device or service fails to start
There might be a problem with a missing or corrupted device driver, or there could be hardware resource conflicts (although this is rare on a Plug and Play [PnP] system).
Boots to safe mode
There may be a drive problem if the computer continues to boot only into this type of mode.
Display Type Mismatch
CMOS error: displayed if the video settings do not match the monitor attached to the system.
Memory Size Mismatch
CMOS error: displayed if the amount of RAM detected and the amount specified in CMOS do not match.
useful tool used to manage and configure system devices.
Windows Task Manager
basic system-diagnostic and performance-monitoring tool.
System Information Utility
displays detailed information
about the current system configuration, including a general
summary of the system components, hardware resource
assignments by category, installed hardware devices, the software
environment, and Internet Explorer® settings.
view the contents of event logs, which are
files that contain information
on your computer.
console serves as a genuine
Swiss army knife of major system administration and information tools.
In this tool you can: Display Drives, modify partitions, assign drive letters, and reformat
Check Disk Command
Verifies the logical integrity of a file system.
chkdsk command that repairs the files system data
chkdsk command that locates bad sectors and recovers any readable information
Formats partitions to a selected file system. You can run the format
command at the command line,
Explorer and choose Format.
Arranges stored data on a disk into contiguous blocks (defragmentation). Because individual files are stored on disks in multiple separate blocks, the used and empty storage areas on a disk can
become fragmented and scattered.
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