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many Eastern Europeans unhappy with communist led government

What prompted the revolutions in Eastern Europe?

Eastern Europe now without military threat from Soviet Union (leader Gorbachev)

Why do Eastern Europeans feel free to demand change?

Lech Walesa

organized solidarity trade union with support of Catholic Church rose to power; won 1993 Nobel Prize for efforts

Workers' protest

What led Poland's demands for change?

parliamentary elections

In 1988, Poland agreed to ----- ------

new government

Communism had reigned for 45 years in Poland, what put communism to an end?

free-market reforms, unemployment, inflation, and crime

In 1990, Walesa became President; what challenges did he face? (4)

Kwasniewski instituted several reforms

At the end of 1995 who defeated Walesa? What did he do with his position?

Lech Kwasniewski

April 10, 2010, he was killed in plane crash along with 96 other Polish officials

successful demonstrations

What caused the Czechoslovakia government to collapse in 1989?

the Czech Republic and Slovakia is created by peace settlement

When ethnic conflicts create a division for Czevhoslovakia, What is created and by what? (2)


becomes president of Czech Republic after the division in Czechoslovakia

Michal Kova

becomes president of Slovakia after the division in Czechoslovakia

despotic regime

Ceausescu's __________ _________increased resistance in Romania as his policies became increasingly harsh and violent

Ceausescu; after this he lost support of his army

1989 who order the murder of thousands of peaceful demonstrators; how did this decision affect him?

Ceausescu and wife

executed on Christmas Day 1989

Erich Honecker's harsh regime

What was the main cause for increased opposition in East Germany?

many fled the country and mass demonstrations broke out in 1989

What happen in East Germany in 1989?

the restrictions on travel between East and West Germany ended and the Berlin Wall was torn down

What happened on Nov. 9th 1989?

East and West Germany were reunified

What happened on Oct. 3rd 1990?

Josip Tito

After WWII Yugoslavia as ruled by whom?


remained communist until 1990s and eventually collapsed due to reforms; independence movement broke out

Slobodan Milosevic

Wanted larger Serbian nation

Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia

1990: countries that advocated for independence

Slovenia and Croatia

When negotiations failed with Slobodan, what two countries became independent by June 1991?


What was growing increasingly powerful and increasingly took control of Yugoslavian army and Croatian land


In 1992 Serbian forces focused primarily on what part of Eastern Europe?


by 1993 Serbian forces acquired 70% of what part of Eastern Europe?


many Bosnians were _________ and face ___________ __________ from the Serbians; 100s of thousands were killed and a million displaced

Bosnian and Croatia along with NATO forces

1995 who regained territory taken by the Serbia? (3)

Dec. 14th, 1995

What day was Serbia forced into peace tready?


What was the majority ethnic group in Kosovo?


1974 who had mad Kosovo a self-governing province within Yugoslavia

Slobodan Milosevic

Serbian who stripped Kosovo's autonomy

Kosovo Liberation Army

in 1990s Albanians formed what in order to revolt?

Serbia performed ethnic cleansing against Albanians

What did Serbia do in order to suppress the revolts of the Albanians?


faced charges by the International Court; 2003 he was indicted on charges of killing opposition people such as Stambolic (ex-Pres.)and Draskovic (opposition leader)--supporters suspected of Djindic's (PM) death; Milosevic found dead in his cell in 2006

US and NATO intervened and despite Milosevic's protests and Albanians in Kosovo regained autonomy in 1999

What two groups intervened with the ethnic cleansing issue?

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Purpose: a political and military alliance that promotes democratic values and peace around the world; will use military means if necessary
It includes 28 members from North America and Europe

United Nations has 193 member nations, primarily acts as human rights watch group and peacekeeping force; much longer to take action due to consensus needed by 193 member nation

What does the United Nation primarily do and how many member nation does it have?

"consciousness-raising" campaigns

groups to raise awareness for women's issues; stereotyping, social and economic equality; Equal Pay Act

women increasingly entered the workforce and universities

How did women's lives change during and after the 1970s?

Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act

Equal Pay Act still didn't ensure equal pay until what was signed by Obama in 2009?

antinuclear movement, women's studies, environmentalists

What broad issues arose during the 80s and 90s?

some advocated return to traditional values or to redefine "feminism" as struggle to balance career and family

Why would the 1990s be considered somewhat of a backlash?


groups that use violent tactics to achieve their goals; such as killings, taking hostages, hijacking planes

Irish Republican Army (IRA)

goal is to unite Northern Ireland with the Irish Republic; used tactics such as bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, etc. and caused deaths of thousands

England, Scotland; whales; northern ireland

What is considered to be the UK?

england; scotland; whales

What is considered to be GB?

state-sponsored terrorism

encouragement by one country to inflict harm on another; Iraq, Syria, North Korea

Sept. 11, 2001

Al-Qaeda operatives hijacked planes; pans masterminded by Osama bin Laden and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed


US and NATO troops had removed ________ from power in Afghanistan due to their refusal to relinquish and cease cooperation with Osama bin Laden

Department of Homeland Security

established to protect U.S.

weapons of mass destruction

2002 Bush administration broadened their focus to seize what?

March 2003

when Iraq did not cooperate to US liking the war was launched on Iraq in ____________ ____________.

Saddam Hussein

by Dec. 2003 ____________ ____________ captured; despite his execution in Dec. 2006 turmoil and unrest continues today

"cultural imperialism"

influence of American culture through movies, television (MTV), music (jazz, blues, rock, and rap) (Elvis and Chuck Berry influence on Beatles), and material goods
drawn criticism from countries around the world for "Americanizing" cultures

sports along with television showing of the sports

What became a worldwide phenomenon in the 20th century?

1972 Munich Games witnessed the murder of 11 Israeli athletes by a Palestinian terrorist group; US boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics and Soviets boycotted '84 Olympic in Los Angeles

How did television/sports become voice of terrorism?

ethnic cleansing

a policy of killing or forcibly removing an ethnic group from its lands; used by the Serbs against the Muslim minority in Bosnia



pop art

an artistic movement that emerged in the early 1960s; pop artists took imaged from popular culture and transformed them into works of fine art


an artistic movement that emerged in the 1980s; its artist do not expect rationality in the world and are comfortable with many "truths"

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