Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
chpt. 17 Blood
Terms in this set (19)
Describe how the functions of blood are related to cell and body homeostasis
*Delivering O2 & nutrients to body cells
*Transporting metabolic wastes to lungs & kidneys for elimination
*Transporting hormones from endocrine organs to target organs
*Maintaining body temperature by absorbing & distributing heat
*Maintaining normal pH using buffers; alkaline reserve of bicarbonate ions
*Maintaining adequate fluid volume in circulatory system
Describe the composition of blood and the relative volumes of each component
Matrix is nonliving fluid called plasma
Living blood "cells" called formed elements
55% Fluid: Plasma
1% Electrolytes, Nutrients
38-48% red blood cells
less than 1% white blood cells
Relate the structure of the red blood cell to its function
*Biconcave for more surface area which means it can transfer oxygen and CO2 quickly.
*They are flexible so they can go through veins and arteries quickly.
(really small and round)
*Contain hemoglobin for oxygen and CO2 transport
major contributor to viscosity
red blood cells
Describe how red blood cell formation is homeostatically controlled.
When oxygen levels in the blood are low, the kidney will release erythropoietin which stimulates bone marrow to make RBC.
Describe how damaged red blood cells are removed from circulation how the breakdown
products are recycled or eliminated
Damaged RBCs Are Removed in Liver and Spleen and destroyed by macrophages, Iron and Amino acids are recycled.
The porpyrin ring is made into bilirubin in the liver and secreted in bile, and the globin is broken down into amino acids.
Briefly describe the composition and function of plasma
1% Electrolytes, Nutrients
Function: It keeps the blood from clotting and it keeps the blood more fluid instead of jelloish.
Describe the structure and function of platelets.
Structure: cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes. These cells are formed from hemocytoblasts.
Describe the three stages of hemostasis
1.) vascular spasm:Physical blocking of the blood, which promotes vaso-constriction.
2.) platelet plug formation
Describe the formation of a platelet plug
Endothelium gets damaged and exposes collagen fibers which allow the platelets to stick.
Platelets release ADP, serotonin and thromboxane which are messengers that increase vascular spasm and platelet aggregation.
To prevent platelets sticking to undamaged endothelial tissue, they secrete nitric O and prostacyclin.
Give a general overview of the clotting process (i.e. a cascade of reactions involving
positive feedback that requires platelets and plasma proteins).
*Collagen gets exposed in endothelium, which stops releasing nitric O, prostacyclin. This allows platelets to start sticking, which then release ADP, serotonin and thromboxane. These chemicals promote more platelets to start sticking.
*Platelets have platelet factor 3 which causes activation of prothrombin activator. Prothrombin activator then catalyzes the transformation of plasma protein called prothrombin to thrombin.
*Thrombin the catalyzes the transformation of fibrinogen into fibrin.
*Fibrin is the component that glues the platelets together and is insoluble.
Distinguish the intrinsic clotting mechanism from the extrinsic mechanism with regard
to their initiation and indicate how the two mechanisms are related
I. Extrinsic Mechanism: Requires Tissue Factor: This skips some early steps to clott blood, it uses tissues, and not just blood factors. This one is faster, so the initial clott is made by extrinsic pathway.
II. Intrinsic Mechanism: Requires Only Factors In Blood (Activated By `Contact'): Does not have anything outside of blood that it uses to clot blood. Abnormal surface activates intrinsic pathway (exposed collagen). Vessel damage ---> exposed collagen----> contact activation
Both activate platelet plug formation.
Specifically describe the role of thrombin in blood clotting and describe the final
reaction involved in clot formation
Thrombin turns fibrinogen to fibrin which forms the mesh that catch erythrocytes.
Describe the function of anticoagulants
chemical mediators that inhibit clotting; most inhibit intrinsic pathway mediators
Describe the function of factors that promote fibrinolysis
endothelial tissue in the presence of a clot will secrete tissue plasminogen activator. This will activate plasminogen into plasmin which will digest fibrin.
Describe the different blood types in terms of the antigens (agglutinogens) and
antibodies (agglutinins) present in the blood and the effects of mixing different blood types
Type A has A proteins and B antibodies. Type B is the reverse.
Type O has antibodies but neither of the proteins.
Type AB has both types of proteins and does not have any antibodies.
Describe how red blood cells, platelets and all types of white blood cells arise from a
common cell type in the bone marrow. 4
Our bone marrow produces blood cells, called red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.
Inside the marrow, blood cells start off as young, immature cells called stem cells. Once they develop, blood cells do not live for a long time inside our bodies. This is why our marrow continuously produces all three types of blood cells to keep us healthy. (hematopoietic stem cell in red bone marrow)
Describe the general appearance (granular vs. agranular) of each type of white blood
*Eosinophil: Granular with double segmented nucleus. Parasites and worms.
*Neutrophil: is Granular with three or more segments. Phagocytosis.
*Basophil: Granular with one large nucleus. Inflammation and anticoagulation.
*Lymphocytes: Agranular with a very large nucleus. Antibodies.
*Monocyte: agranular with one U shaped nucleus. macrophages
Describe the general function and relative abundance of each type of white blood cell.
*Eosinophil:2 - 4 % of WBC's; kill parasitic worms;complex role in allergy and asthma
*Neutrophil:50 - 70 % of WBC's; Bacterial infections, some fungi;phagocytzie bacteria
*Basophil:0.5 - 1 % of WBC's;Plays key role in allergic reactions; release histamin and other mediators of imflammation
*Lymphocytes:25 % of WBC's;Critical to the immune response
*Monocyte:3 - 8 % of WBC's;Circulates in bloodstream and develops into macrophages and antigen presenting cells in tissues and Elicits an immune response via antigen presentation (activates lymphocytes)
Sets found in the same folder
Chpt.16 endocrine system
Chpt. 18 Heart
Blood pt 2
Chapter 17 Blood HW
Sets with similar terms
Anatomy/Physiology Chapter 11
Chapter 17: Blood
Chapter 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Blood
Science - Chapter 16, Sec. 2 - Blood and Lymph
Other sets by this creator
Self-Care study guide
Oral motor skills and feeding Part 2
Oral Motor Skills and Feeding Part 1
Other Quizlet sets
ANSC quiz 4
Ch. 11 Review
Poli Sci Midterm
Mesopotamia and Egypt review