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Geosc 40 Exam 1
Terms in this set (108)
The "Goldilocks Principle," as applied to the origin or water on Earth suggests that
Earth has just the right position in the solar system - not to close to the sun and not too far
On average, and particularly in the tropics, the temperature and salinity of ocean deep water is very similar to that of shallow, surface water
Water molecules have polar (unequally distributed) charge that leads to many of water's unusual characteristics
Rachel Carson suggested that rain and other factors weather the continents and that rivers deliver dissolved rock (including elements such as Na, Ca, and Cl) to the world ocean
When scientists carry out investigations, they typically
1. make observations
2. test hypotheses by trying to disprove them
3. make predictions using hypotheses and test these against existing data and new observations
examples of Latent heat are
the energy required to change ice to liquid water, the energy released when water vapor condenses to form rain
There is less dissolved carbon dioxide in deepwater of the ocean than in the ocean's surface waters
Ocean water most likely formed
from emission (degassing) of materials (volatiles) from Earth's interior
The latent heat of fusion ( melting) for water in 80 cal per gram. How much heat energy is required to melt 1 gram of ice?
Which of the following is/are true about residence time of an element in seawater?
it is given the ratio of the total amount of the element in seawater divided by the input rate
Saltwater is less dense than freshwater
Seawater density is determined primarily by salinity and temperature
Many elements are dissolved in sea water, but Cl is the most abundant and Na is the second most abundant
Ocean chemistry is influenced by
1. inputs from river water
2. outputs such as gypsum. halite, and other evaporites
3. interaction of seawater with the sea floor
The average salinity of the world ocean is about
The terms sensible heat and heat capacity refer to
the heat necessary to change the temperature of a substance
Latent heat refers to the heat necessary to
change the phase of a substance, like solid to liquid
Water has a higher heat capacity than land
The solubility of gas dissolved in seawater
is higher in colder water
The average chemical composition of river water is the same as that of seawater
The course web sit has a link to an article about exoplanets and it points of that Earth-sized planets are common in our galaxy
List elements or molecules rank in concentration in seawater in order
Cl, Na, SO4, Mg, Ca, K
The density of seawater
1. increases as it cools from 30 deg to 5 deg
2. increases as temperature falls and salinity rises
Hurricanes share some aspects of storms like the recent winter storm Jonas.
driven by transfer of heat to the upper atmosphere via water vapor and latent heat release
How does a hurricane build energy?
as it moves across the ocean it sucks up warm, moist, tropical air from the ocean surface and dispenses heat aloft
The latent heat of fusion (melting) for water is 80 cal. How much heat energy is required to melt 10 grams of ice?
When astronomers look at Earth-sized planets in our galaxy, what do they find?
17 percent of sun-like stars have Earth-size planets
What suggests that there are many Earth-size planets in the galaxy?
in 2013, astronomers were excited to discover that the number of exoplanets increases toward smaller sizes
What did a team of astronauts recently announce?
they had detected two Earth-sized planets circling very close to a star called Kepler-20
Water cycle involves
the ocean is...
stratified into layers, particularly in the tropics, such that shallow water has different properties than deep water
Average residence time for a molecule to make a trip from the ocean and back
Ocean chemistry is influenced by
1. inputs such as river water and volcanic gases
2. outputs such as evaporates and interaction of seawater with the seafloor
3. rock weathering
4. marine life including plants and animals
What increases as temp falls and salinity rises?
density of seawater!
Residence time can be calculated how
from the total amount of the element and the input rate
Facts about gases that are dissolved in seawater!
1. nitrogen is the most abundant gas dissolved in seawater
2. oxygen dissolves in seawater and is important for fishes and other organisms that respire
3. the concentration of oxygen in seawater is normally higher in surface water than in deep water
Names for the region between ocean surface water and deep water
thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline
More gas can be dissolved in cold seawater than in warm seawater
Latitudes higher than about 40 degrees N and S receiver more solar energy than they lose
Can marine animals break down water molecules to obtain oxygen for respiration?
What is the primary means of heating the tropics?
incoming energy from the sun
What plays an important role in the pattern of ocean currents and large scale winds?
heat transfer from low to high latitudes
What transfers heat from low to high latitudes?
ocean currents and winds
What are the three major circulation cells in each hemisphere?
Hadley (0°-30°); Ferrel (30°-60°); Polar (60°-90°)
Uneven heating of the Earth's surface results in
1. belts of low and high pressure (generates a three-dimensional pattern of winds)
2. winds that include Easterlies, Westerlies, and upper atmosphere winds such as the Jet Stream
3. Warmer conditions in polar regions than in tropical regions
4. a surplus of solar energy received in the tropics relative to high latitudes
Atmospheric and ocean circulation
1. temperature contrasts between the equator and polar regions drive circulation
2. thermohaline circulation of ocean water is driven by temperature and salinity differences
Three major circulation cells in each hemisphere
Hadley (0°-30°); Ferrel (30°-60°); Polar (60°-90°)
At earth's surface, how does wind move?
away from high pressure systems and toward low pressure systems
What are ocean currents driven in part by
gradients in seawater
Cold and salt water is...
denser than warm and fresh water
The Coriolis effect plays a role in
1. deflection of wind and ocean currents to the right in the N hemisphere
2. deflection of wind and ocean currents to the left in the S hemisphere
3. trade winds that blow east to west in both the N and S hemispheres
4. formation of large-scale ocean currents called gyres
In large scale gyres, which way to the surface currently flow in both the N and S hemispheres?
Does global oceanic circulation involving deep water and surface water motion act to regulate Earth's surface heat and climate?
What is deep water ocean circulation driven by?
temperature and salinity contrasts between water masses
What arises from conservation of momentum and Earth's rotation?
The Coriolis Effect
What brings warm water from the tropics to the poles and cold water from the poles to the tropics?
What happens when water piles up in the interior of a gyre?
it causes a slight surface slope and pressure gradient oriented toward the outside of a gyre
Where is oceanic deepwater formed today?
the Weddell Sea and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea
Where are the highest surface temps?
How does deep water temperature differ between latitudinal zones?
it has about the same temperature
Which was is wind circulation around a low pressure system in the N hemisphere?
Why and where do baleen whales migrate?
they migrate to feast in the Bering and Chukchi Seas when conditions are optimum for growth of plankton and krill (coccolithorpids)
What are essential to phytoplankton growth?
ocean deep water is rich in nutrients
World fish production has increased steadily for the past 50 years and advances in large-scale fishing techniques will likely allow fish production to...
increase for another 50 years
What animals are affected by ocean acidification and promote the dissolutions of animals with calcium carbonate shells or skeletons
phytoplankton, clams, mussels, corals
What form the base of the marine food chain?
Marine phytoplankton are photosynthetic organisms. In the photic zone of the ocean, their growth rate can be limited by
availability of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and light
According to the trophic pyramid, to grow 1 kg of a top level predator consumer such as tuna...
it takes 10,000kg of phytoplankton
indicate blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates
Water on Earth came from Earth's interior...
this is a falsifiable, scientific hypothesis. reasonable, can't be rejected
What is viscosity?
the measure of resistance to shear motion
Origin of salt in seawater
hydrothermal circulation through midocean ridges is both a source and sink for certain elements
Why does phosphate have a short residence time then most major elements in seawater?
It is cycled very rapidly by organisms because it is essential to their metabolism
Does cold freshwater dissolve more or less gas than warm saltwater?
How much incoming solar radiation is reflected back to space without an impact on Earth surface temperature?
what type of waves does the sun radiate?
mostly short-wave energy (visible light)
what type of waves does the earth radiate?
long wave energy (infrared)
direct heat - waves
transported heat with moving materials - wind/water
heat transfer through direct contact
Why is there low pressure over the equator and high pressure at 30 N and 30 S?
1. solar energy reaches equator - warms air- rises
2. equator receives surplus of energy - causes winds that blow away from the equator
why dont tropics boil and poles freeze over?
heat is transferred from the tropics to the poles!
why is solar energy receives at Earth's surface high in the zones centered around 20 N and S?
generally not covered by clouds
When is the Earth closest to the sun?
The Coriolis effect causes objects in motion to veer how
winds blowing south in south - east, winds blowing north in south - west
in earth's southern hemisphere
1. western boundary currents bring warm water southward
2. winds rotate clockwise around low pressure systems
Western Boundary currents tend to be...
narrower, deeper, and swifter than eastern boundary currents
What is most important in transfer of heat from tropics to the poles?
latent heat transfer
In low pressure systems in S hem - which way do winds go?
In the N hem - which way to ocean surface currents go?
The Great North Pacific Garbage patch
held together in part by the North Pacific Gyre, circulates in a clockwise direction
In the southern hemisphere, water in the central interior of gyres
is at a high level than surrounding regions due to coriolis
The Eckman spiral predicts that net motion of surface water is
90 degrees to the right of the wind direction in the N hem
Nearly 98% of global fish production occurs where?
shelf and coastal upwelling regions
Why does the ocean appear blue-green
because blue and green wavelengths penetrate more deeply and red light is absorbed at shallow depths in seawater
is a red fish swam into deep water, what color would it appear?
Coccolithophorids make their skeletons from what?
what are diatoms composed of?
organic matter and silica skeletons
Do dinoflagellates have a mineral skeleton or test?
nope - they evolved before diatoms and Coccolithophorids
Coccolithophorids, diatoms and dinoflagellates
What do plankton do?
convert sun light to organic matter
indicate blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates, occur mainly during the summer, can be caused by or exacerbated by aquaculture
What does UWA Professor say?
mesopelagic fish constitute 95 percent of the world's fish biomass
mesopelagic layer of the ocean
is between 100 m and 1000 meters, plays a significant role in the functioning of the ocean, affecting the flow of carbon and oxygen in the ocean, specie tends to feed near the surface at night to avoid birds
Where is ocean deep water formed?
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