40 terms

BJU Life Science Ch. 13: Cold-Blooded Vertebrates. Questions by Sections

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13A. What two substances may form a vertebrate's skeleton?
Bone and Cartilage
13A. The series of bones that supports the body and protects the spinal cord is the _________ ____________.
vertebral column
13A. Which two groups of animals are endothermic?
Mammals and Birds
13A. What happens to the body temperature of an endothermic animal as its environment cools?
They maintain a relatively constant body temperature.
13A. How might large ears help cool an animal?
Large amounts of blood can be pumped through the large ears near the surface of the skin where it can be cooled efficiently.
13A. How might a snake respond to colder temperatures?
A snake is an ectotherm and cannot control their body temperatures internally. Snakes become sluggish in cool temperatures, and sun themselves to warm their bodies.
13B. (T or F) In a vertebrate's body, oxygenated blood is red, and deoxygenated blood is blue.
False. The blood of vertebrates is actually all red. Oxygenated blood is just a different shad of red than deoxygenated blood. No vertebrate has blue blood in their body. It is just used in diagrams to be easier to understand.
13B. What is the maximum number of chambers in any vertebrate heart?
Four
13B. What happens to blood in gills? In what kind of blood vessel does this happen?
Deoxygenated blood flowing through capillaries becomes oxygenated blood.
13B. What muscle do you use to help you breathe?
Diaphragm
13B. List the two main parts of a central nervous system.
Brain and spinal cord
13B. An organism's reactions to stimuli are controlled
a. by sensory organs.
b. in the central nervous system.
c. by the spinal nerves.
d. inside sensory receptors.
B. in the central nervous system.
13B. (T or F) Iodine is important to the hormone that controls metamorphosis in tadpoles.
True. If a tadpole is raised in an environment without iodine, it will never go through metamorphosis.
13B. How does a pancreas aid digestion?
It makes enzymes and releases them to the small intestine to break down starches, proteins, and fats.
13B. How are nutrients from a vertebrate's food transported from the digestive system to all the cells of its body?
The nutrients are absorbed through walls of small intestine into blood vessels, and blood transports nutrients to rest of animal's cells.
13B. Wastes are filtered from a vertebrate's blood by the ____________________.
Kidneys
13C. (True or False) Fish maintain a fairly constant body temperature.
False. They are ectothermic; they can't control their body temperature internally.
13C. What organ helps some fish maintain their position at a constant depth?
Swim bladder
13C. (True or False) A fish's heart has two chambers.
True
13C. What does a fish use its lateral line to detect?
They use the lateral line of sensory structures to detect vibrations and pressure.
13C. Which term is most closely related to fish reproduction?
a. gill
b. biomimicry
c. lamprey
d. spawn
d. Spawn
13C. What group of fish contains the most species?
Bony Fish (includes catfish, bass, flounder, goldfish, guppies, trout)
13C. Sharks are ________________ fish.
a. bony
b. cartilaginous
c. sessile
d. jawless
b. cartilaginous
Cartilaginous fish have endoskeletons made of cartilage. They have jaws, scales, and paired fins.
13C. (True of False) All fish have scales.
False. Jawless fish have no scales, and some bony fish don't have scales.
13D. How does the meaning of the word amphibian describe amphibians?
From Greek word that means "double life." The name reflects their two ways of living--in water and on land.
13D. (True or False) Amphibians are the only vertebrates that undergo metamorphosis.
True.
13D. Besides gills and lungs, what other organ can amphibians use in gas exchange?
Their skin. Most have thin, moist skin through which they can exchange gases (carbon dioxide and oxygen).
13D. Adult frogs have a _____________-chambered heart.
three-
13D. The period of winter inactivity in amphibians is called:
a. hibernation
b. spawning
c. estivation
d. metamorphosis
a. hibernation
13D. (True or False) A frog uses its strong vomerine teeth to chew food.
False. Frogs don't use their teeth for chewing but to keep live food from escaping.
13D. (True or False) Salamanders are tailless amphibians.
False. Salamanders are amphibians which have tails in adulthood.
13E. Reptiles
a. are ectothermic.
b. have gills for respiration
c. are covered with a dry, scaly skin.
d. A and C
e. all of the above
d. A and C. They are ectothermic and are covered with a dry, scaly skin. They have lungs, not gills.
13E. Periodic shedding of skin by reptiles is called ________________.
molting
13E. List three differences between snakes and lizards.
3 Differences:
1. Snakes have no legs, most lizards have four legs.
2. Snakes have no ear openings, lizards have ear openings.
3. Snakes have immovable eyelids, lizards have movable eyelids.
13E. List three similarities between snakes and lizards.
3 Similarities:
1. They both shed their skin periodically, molting.
2. They share similar habitats.
3. ??
13E. What does a snake do to smell something?
It flicks its tongue to collect molecules in the air, and the tongue brings the molecules to organs on the roof of its mouth to detect food or danger.
13E. (True or False) Most snakes are venomous.
False. Most snakes are nonvenomous.
13E. What characteristics of a snake help it swallow its prey whole?
Their jaws are double-hinged to allow them to open very wide. Also, two sides of lower jaw can separate, allowing them to open mouth even further.
13E. Where do crocodiles and alligators usually live?
Relatively shallow waters of warm streams, rivers, swamps, and lakes. Usually in tropical and subtropical climates.
13E. Which of the three general kinds of turtles would you most likely find in a desert?
Tortoises live entire lives on land.