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18 terms

Organelles

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selective permeability
a property of biological membranes that allow some substances to pass through while keeping others out
phospholipid bilayer
a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes
transport protein
a protein located in the cell membrane that helps move specific substances in and out of the cell
fluid mosaic model
structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
cytoskeleton
a network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
ribosome
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
nucleolus
structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made
endoplasmic reticulum
a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum into sacs called vesicles
vacuole
storage structures for food, water, minerals, waste
lysosome
the organelle that digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders
centriole
specialized organelle that directs cell division in animal cells
mitochondrion
An organelle that carries out cellular respiration, which produces the energy a cell needs to carry out its activities
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that carries out photosynthesis, which captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
cell wall
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms and gives them support
cilium
a short, hairlike projection from the surface of a cell
flagellum
a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move