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selective permeability

a property of biological membranes that allow some substances to pass through while keeping others out

phospholipid bilayer

a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes

transport protein

a protein located in the cell membrane that helps move specific substances in and out of the cell

fluid mosaic model

structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer


a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended


a network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement


An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins


structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made

endoplasmic reticulum

a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum into sacs called vesicles


storage structures for food, water, minerals, waste


the organelle that digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders


specialized organelle that directs cell division in animal cells


An organelle that carries out cellular respiration, which produces the energy a cell needs to carry out its activities


organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that carries out photosynthesis, which captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

cell wall

a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms and gives them support


a short, hairlike projection from the surface of a cell


a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move

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