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MCB2004 Exam 1 Jones FSU
Terms in this set (95)
10-6 m or 10-3 mm
10-9 m or 10-6 nm
Organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye
Bacteria and Archaea
Algae, Protozoa, Fungi
Prokaryotes that have peptidoglycan cell walls, reproduce through binary fission, and for energy use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis
Prokaryotes that lack peptidoglycan, commonly live in extreme environments, and include methanogens, extreme halophiles, and extreme thermophiles
Eukaryote that has chitin cell walls, uses organic chemicals for energy, and includes yeasts (unicellular) and mold and mushrooms (multicellular)
Eukaryote that absorbs or ingests organic chemicals. It may be motile by pseudopods, cilia, or flagella
Eukaryotes that have cellulose cell walls, use photosynthesis for energy, and produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds
Acellular microorganism that can have DNA or RNA genome. Surrounded by a protein coat (capsid) which can be enclosed in a lipid envelope
What is only replicated when in a living host cell?
organism's total genetic content
T/F: All microorganisms are harmful
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Three main domains for classifying microorganisms
The idea that all living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells
The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter
The hypothesis that living organisms arise from preexisting life
Who did the experiment on maggots that started the idea of spontaneous generation?
the conversion of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine
Who did the bottle neck experiment to show that spontaneous generation does not happen?
The application of high heat for a short time to kill bacteria
The scientist that proved that specific microbes cause a specific disease
1. Detect agent in host with the disease
2. Isolate pure culture agent
3. Induce disease in new host
4. Re-isolate the agent
Chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes
Paul Ehrlich speculated that there was something that could destroy a pathogen without harming the host, this idea is called?
Who discovered the first antibiotic? And which antibiotic was it?
DNA that is made from two different sources
Microbes that are normally present in and on the human body. They prevent the growth of pathogens and produce growth factors
Emerging infectious disease that causes fever, hemorrhaging, and blood clotting and was first identified in Africa
Simple sugars with three to seven carbon atoms. Chemical formula includes C, H, and O
Reaction that breaks about disaccharides by the addition of water
Primary component of cell membranes that is used for fuel storage, is in vitamins and hormones, and is insoluble in water
Four carbon ring with a hydroxy group attached to one ring and make up membranes
Lipids that contain C, H, O and either P, N, or S
Objective lens X ocular lens=?
Microscope in which the image from the objective lens is magnified again by the ocular lens
The light-bending ability of a medium
Form of microscope illumination when dark objects are visible against a bright background. Light is reflected off the specimen does not enter the objective lens
Form of microscope illumination where light objects are visible against a dark background. Light reflected off the specimen enters the objective lens. Used to observe living, unstained preparations
Microscope that enhances the contrast between the intracellular structures having slight differences in refractive index. A good way to observe living cells and is especially useful for detecting bacterial components that have refractive indices different than water
Differential inference contrast
Microscope that accentuates diffraction of the light that passes through a specimen; uses two beams of light
Microscopre that uses UV light and the fluorescent substances absorb UV light and emit visible light. The cells may be stained with fluorescent dyes. This allows you to study localizations of particular proteins in high resolutions
Microscope that uses fluorochromes and a laser light. The laser illuminates each plane in a specimen to produce a three-dimensional image
Microscope that uses electrons instead of light. The shorter wavelength of electrons gives greater resolution but can only be used on fixed specimens such as viruses
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Microscope with ultrathin sections of specimens. The light passes through the specimen, then an electromagnetic lens, to a screen of film. The specimens may be stained with heavy metal salts. Shows the inner surface of the specimen
Scanning Electron Microscope
Microscope where an electron gun produces a beam of electrons that scans the surface of a whole specimen. Secondary electrons emitted from the specimen produce the image. Shows the outer surface of specimen in 3d
A thin film of a solution of microbes on a slide. Usually fixed to attach the microbes to the slide and to kill the microbes
Use of a single basic dye to stain the specimen
Used to hold the stain or coat the specimen to enlarge it
Bacteria classified through a differential stain that tend to be killed by penicilin
Bacteria classified through a differential stain that are more resilient to antibiotics
Negative staining is useful for what?
What is required to drive a stain into endospores?
Flagella staining requires a ______ to make the flagella wide enough to see
The basic shapes for what microorganism are as follows?
Helical and flexible
What is outside the cell wall of prokaryotes, is usually sticky, with a neatly organized capsule and a slime layer that is unorganized and loose. The extracellular polysaccharide allows the cell to attach
What do capsules prevent?
Part of cell that is outside of the cell wall, made of chains of flagellin, attached to a protein hook, and is anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body
part of the cell that rotates flagella to run or tumble. They move toward or away from stimuli
Part of the prokaryotic cell that is endoflagella and in spirochetes. It is anchored at one end of a cell and rotation causes a cell to move
part of the prokaryotic cell that are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another
part of the prokaryotic cell that allows attachment
What are bacteria cell walls made of?
Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) and is linked by polypeptides
What color are stained gram-positive cells?
What color are stained gram-negative cells
Gram positive cell
Thick peptidoglycan, one membrane, no LPS, and teichoic acids
Gram negative cell
Thin peptidoglycan, outer membrane (two membranes), has LPS, no teichoic acids
Polyolphosphates that are covalently linked to the cell wall and ends in a glycolipid
Microorganisms that lack cell walls. Ie sterols in plasma membrane
Domain that is either wall-less or has walls of pseudomurein
Enzyme that digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan that therefore damages the cell wall
The pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane
What is the ribosome unit for prokaryotes that is made up of two subunits, a 50S and a 30S
An inclusion body in prokaryotes that senses the earth's magenetic field and decomposes hydrogen peroxide
Resting cells in prokaryotes that are resistant to environmental stress. Remain dormant for over 1000 years, can survive in boiling water, and most common food preservation processes do not kill them
What part of the plasma membrane are unique to eukaryotes?
Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules make up this
Movement of cytoplasm throughout cells
part of the eukaryotic cell that consists of protein fibers and centrioles that plays an important role in cell division
What type of ribosome is does a eukaryote have?
Theory that eukaryotic cells come from prokaryotic cells because larger bacterial cells engulfed smaller bacterial cells
the energy-releasing processes. The breakdown of organic compounds
The energy using processes
an organic cofactor
apoenzyme plus a cofactor
NAD+, NADP+, FAD, and CoEnzyme A are what?
ATP is generated by the _____ of ADP
Metabolic pathway that produces NADPH and ATP and does not involve glycolysis
Pentose phosphate pathway
metabolic pathway that uses pentoses and NADPH and operates with glycolysis
Metabolic pathway in which the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen
Metabolic pathway where the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2. Yields less energy than aerobic respiration
How many ATPs are produced in eukaryotes in metabolism?
Form of metabolism that releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules, does not require oxygen, does not use the Krebs cycle or ETC
Recommended textbook explanations
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
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Biocalculus: Calculus, Probability, and Statistics for the Life Sciences
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
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