118 terms

Praxis PLT Grades: 7-12

Abraham Maslow
Associated with 5 Hierarchy of needs:
1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Love and belongingness
4. Esteem
5. Self-Actualization: Peace, Self-fulfillment
Abraham Maslow
Lower level needs must be satisfied before individuals can progress to higher levels of achievement.
Achievement Tests
Designed to measure a student's knowledge or profiency in something that has been taught or learned; used in a variety of subjects and levels.
Americans with Disabilities Act - ADA
Federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of a person's disability for all services, programs, and activities provided or made available by the state or local governments. Passed in 1990.
Albert Bandura
"Social Learning Theory" - Behavior can be learned through the observations of others.
Social Learning Theory
Behavior of children can be learned through the observations of others.
Albert Bandura
Found that observational learning requires attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation; "Modeling".
The process of explaining people's behavior, including our own.
Accidental of Critical Thinking
Done by choice encounter.
Attention Deficit Disorder - ADD
Disability in which children consistently show one or more characteristics over a period of time; inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

May have difficulty focusing, following directions, organizing, making transitions, and completing tasks.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD
Disability in which children consistently show one or more characteristics over a period of time; inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

May have impulsivity, sitting still, and taking turns.
Time period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood in which a child negotiates identity vs. role confusion with key event of a sense identity.
Analysis Questions
What are the features of?
How does this compare with?
Alternative Assessment
Offer students more choices than they would have in taking a test or writing an essay.
A term which refers to emotions and attitudes.
Analytical Scoring
Scoring method which separate scores are given for specific aspects of the essay. A scoring procedure in which a student's work is evaluated for selected characteristics, with EACH CHARACTERISTIC receiving a separate score
Anecdotal Notes
Informal assessment where teacher makes small notes based of observations of student behavior or performance.
One's capability for performing a particular skill or task.
Aptitude Test
Used to predict a student's ability to learn a skill or accomplish something with further education and training.
What one has learned over a period of time from both school and non-school sources; one's general capability for performing tasks.
Age-Equivalent Scores
Test score indicating the age level of students to whom a test taker performed most similarly.
Authentic Assessment
Measure student understanding of the learning process and product, rather than just the product.
Auditory Learner
Students who process information through listening, lecture discussions, listening to tapes, repeating information, and reading aloud.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Disorder where students have difficulty socializing and communicating.
Advatages of Critical Thinking for Students
1. Allows for students to think for themselves
2. Allows for students to question information.
3. Challenges traditional belief.
4. Allows for new information discovery.
5. Allows for students investigation.
Advantages of Direct Instruction
1. Introduce new information or tasks.
2. It can be easy to judge how well the students are progressing.
3. Teacher has control
4. Easy to measure if curriculum needs are being met
5. Quick way to learn information.
Advantages of Independent Learning
1. Learn life long learning skills
2. Identify learning style that suits the learner best
3. Learn higher order thinking
4. Mirrors real life adult learning
Advance Organizers
Introducted before learning begins; link prior knowledge to current. Ex. Sematic Map, Webs, KWL chart, Concept Map
Basic Cognitive Process
1. Critical Thinking
2. Creative Thinking
3. Questioning
4. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
5. Problem Solving
6. Planning Memory
7. Recall
Bloom's Taxonomy
Developed by Bejamin Bloom and identifies educational objectives by the order of lower to higher level thinking skills.
Bloom's Taxonomy
Hierarchy Level of thinking which categorizes the skills required at each level according to difficulty:
1. Knowledge
2. Comprehension
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation
B.F. Skinner
"Operant Conditioning"
Based on the idea that learning is a function of change in observable behavior. Changed in behavior are the result of a person's response to events. When a stimulus-response is reinforced, the indivivual becomes conditioned to respond, which is operant conditioning.
B.F. Skinner
Behavior approach to learning.
Benjamin Bloom
Established a hierarchy of educational objectives that attempted to divide cognitive objectives into subdivisions ranging from simplest to most complex behavior.
Level of culture defined by our social roles, language, and approaches to non verbal communication that help us situate ourselves organizationally in society. Teachers manipulate the learning environment and present stimuli, using conditioning and social learning to shape student behavior.
Behavioral Objectives
Statements that communicate proposed changes in students' behavior to reach desired levels or performance.
Behavior/Emotional Disorders
Consists of serious, persistent problems that involve relationships, aggression, depression, fears associated with personal or school matters, and other inappropriate socioemotional characteristics.
Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence
Students who are athletically gifted and aquire knowledge through bodily sensations.
Behaviorism Concepts
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards
Cognitivism Concepts
Information Processing
Constructivism Concepts
Learning as Experience
Problem Based Learning
Zone of Proximal Development
Inquiry/Discovery Learning
Social Learning Theory Concepts
Reciprocal Determinism
Vicarious Learning
Cloze Procedure
An assessment method used to determind readability of a text that involves deleting words from the text and leaving blank spaces. The teacher chooses a text of atleast 250 words, leaves the first and last sentences alone, and deletes every fifth word in the text.
Carol Gilligan
Known for "Stages of the Ethic of Care" based on the moral development of women.
Carol Gilligan
Moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasonings were different.
A test designed to indicate how an individual performs in comparison to a pre-established acceptable criterion, rather than the performance of other students.
Comprehension Questions
Interpret, retell, organize, and select facts.
Cooperative Learning
Students work together to solve a problem or achieve a goal; they help each other learn. Ex. Think-Pair-Share, Jigsaw
Giving advice, direction or information to improve performance
Cognitive Processes
Emphasizes ways to enhance student's intrinsic nature and make sense of the world around them. Ex. Critical thinking, creative thinking, questioning, inductive and deductive reasoning, problem solving, planning, memory, recall.
Concept Mapping
A visual means of exploring connections between a subject and related ideas and identify, graphically display, and link key concepts. Way to organize.
Cooperative Learning Groups
Students working together in small groups (4-6 students). Mix together students of different abilities, each student needs a job, teacher needs to monitor and adjust groups.
Creative Thinking
Finding new ideas by joining old ones. The more knowledge one possesses allows for larger base of information to use towards creative thinking. Yields a productive and culturally appropriate result. Come up with unique solutions to problems.
Creative Thinking Processes
Through an on going process
Critical Thinking Processes
The pursuit of knowledge that:
1. Asks appropriate questions
2. Collects relevant information
3. Fosters thinking that enables people to make large informed decisions vs low level thinking.
Concept Learning
Refers to learning about something in general rather than learning-specific stimuls-response chains. Same as cognitive learning.
Classical and Operant Conditioning
Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

Learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus.
Cognitive Dissonance
An uncomfortable inconsistency among one's actions, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings. People attempt to reduce it by making their actions, beliefs, attitudes or feelings more consistent with one another.
A philosophy of learning based on the premise that people construct their own understanding of the world they live in through the reflection on previous experiences and knowledge.
Joint communication and decision making among educational professionals to create an optimal learning environment for students and especially for students with disabilities. A philosophy about how to relate to others- how to learn and work.
Interdisciplinary Units Components
-Generating Applicable Topics
-Planning Instruction for each Discipline
-Designing Integrative Assessment
Critical Thinking
Rationally deciding what to believe or what to do. When one rationally decides something, he or she evaluates information to see if it makes sense, whether it's coherent, and whether the argument is well founded on evidence. Thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating evidence.
Critical Thinking Characteristics
1. Organize thoughts for articulation
2. Uses evidence relevantly and objectively
3. Makes judgements after evidence
4. Understands different beliefs and points of view
5. Sees hidden similarities
6. Learns indepentently
7. Applies knowledge to new situations
8. Can articulate irrelevance in arguments
9. Questions your own views
10. Aware that some knowledge contains bias
Most visable level of culture including: clothes, music, games, and food. Having a material existence; not abstract; tangible.
Concrete Operational
Occurs from ages 7-11 in which the child reasons logically in familiar situations and can conserve and reverse operations.
Conventional (G)
Moral Stage with the goal of self-sacrifice as goodness
Conventional 1 (K)
Moral stage with the social orientation of "good boy/good girl"
Conventional 2 (K)
Moral stage with social orientation of law and order
Code of Ethics
Principles of conduct within an organization that guide decision making and behavior.
A theory of learning. The idea is that learning is a conscious, rational process. People learn by making models, maps and frameworks in their mind. ~ is the opposite of behaviorism. Uses maniplulatives and real-life learning opportunities that are relevant to students' prior experiences. Teachers stimulate cognitive developemtn, mediate student learning and monitor thought processes.
Continuous Reinforcement
Student is reinforced every time she makes a response. In this type of reinforcement, students learn very rapidly. but when the reinforcement stops, extinction also occurs rapidly.
Curriculum Webbing
tool used to help teachers relate and plan for all areas and development using a central theme.
Culturally Relevant Teaching
Seeks to make connections with learner's cultural background. Makes teaching more effective.
Curriculum Chunking
Teacher breaks down the Unit's content into smaller units and provides support of feedback to the student as he or she demonstrates understanding of each piece of information.
Curriculum compacting
Teacher finds the key content tha tmust be learned and reduces the number of examples, activities, or lessons so that a student can demonstrate the content and move on to another subject.
Discovery learning & Constructivism Theory
David Ausubel
Associated with Advanced Organizer, which is a teaching technique that is introduced before learning begins and is designed to help students link their prior knowledge to current lesson's content
Advanced Organizer
teaching technique that is introduced before learning begins and is designed to help students link their prior knowledge to current lesson's content
Deductive Reasoning
Process of drawing a logical inference about something that must be true, given other information that has already been presented as true. - A conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case.
Diagnostic Assessment
Highly specialized, comprehensive and detailed procedures used to uncover persistent or recurring learning difficulties that require specially prepared diagnostic tests as well as various observational techniques.
Direct Instruction
Structured Teacher-centered instruction which includes lecture, presentation, and recitation. Lessons are carefully planned and presented in small attainable increments with clearly defined foals and objectives. Keep negative affect to a minumum.
Direct Instruction Steps
1. Introduce a task.
2. Provide a background.
3. Give student individual work.
4. Instructor provides immediate feedback.
Developmental Delays
Students with one or more of the following difficulties; self-care, expressive or receptive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, and economic self-sufficiency. They may have scattered or arrested gross/fine motor skills- usually proximals to distal.
Group Configurations for Learning
1. Whole Class
2. Small Group
3. Independent
4. One to One
5. Pair Share
Differentiated Instruction
Involves recognizing individual variations in students' knowledge, readiness, interests, and other characteristics and taking these differences into account when planning curriculum and engaging instruction.
Discovery Learning
Teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups. Students construct an understanding on their own.
Direct Instruction Disadvantages
1. Students are taught as a whole, not individuals
2. Learning may seem irrelevant
3. Low retention levels
4. Various students needs are not catered to
Independent Learning Disadvantages
1. Some students feel discouraged
2. Some students need more teacher interaction
3. Low number of students who understand this environment and are able to act naturally
Distance Learning
Process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom site.
Due Process
The set of procedures or safeguards that gives students with disabilities and their parents extensive rights.
Experiential Learning
Learning from experiences.
Independent Learning students must
1. feel enabled by teachers
2. practive with perservering through problems on their own
3. recognize their own faults as a learner
4. be held accountable for their own actions and in actions
5. be exposed to effective ways to self manage
Erik Erickson
Eight Stages of Human Development - suggested Eight Stages of Human Development based on a crisis or conflict that a person resovles
Eight Stages of Human Development
Erick Erikson- Based on Crisis or Conflict that a person resolves:
1. Infancy - Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Toddler- Autonomy vs. Doubt
3. Early Childhood- Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Elementary vs. Middle- Competence vs. Inferiority
5. Adolescence- Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Yound Adulthood- Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Middle Adulthood- Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Late Adulthood- Integrity vs. Despair
Edward L. Thorndike
Connectionism - Behaviorism

Law of Effect- The probability is altered by the effect it has, acts that are reinforced tend to be repeated.
Study- Cat in Puzzle Box.

Learners from associations or connections between a stimulus and a response. Through trial an error, reward responses would be strengthened.
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation that comes from "without", or from outside a person.
Individuals with Disabilites Education Act-IDEA
A federal statute made up of several grant programs to states in education students with disabilities. It specifically lists types of disabilities and conditions that render a child entitled to special education.
Early Childhood
Period between 2-6, in which a child negotiates initiative vs. guilt with a key event of independence.
Elementary or Middle School
Period between 6-12 in which a child negotiates competence vs. inferority with a key event of school.
Terms used to describe students who are learning English as a second language.
Emergent Curriculum
Child-centered curriculum that "emerges" from the children's interest and experiences. It involves both the participation of teachers and children in decision making.
Exceptional Learners
Students who have abilities or problems so significant that the students require special education or other services to reach their potential.
Occurs when a previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and the response decreases. In the classroom, the most common use of this is for the teacher to withdraw attention from a behavior the attention is maintaining.
Evaluation Questions
Make a value decision about an issue in the lesson.
Formal Assessment
Pre-planned, systematic attempt to assess what students have learned.
Formative Assessment
The process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting, information for the purpose of improving student learning while instruction is taking place:

Assessment for improvement during the course, not grading

Used to modify instruction.
Functional Mental Retardation
A condition with an onset before age 18 that involved low intelligence and difficulty in adpating to everyday life. Diagnosis determined by a medical professional for a child who exhibits difficulties with age-specific activities, communication, daily living activities, and getting along with others.
Flexible Grouping
Groups that change as the students' learning needs change
Formal Operational
Occurs from ages 11 and up in which a child can reason in hypothetical situations and use abstract thought. Students at this stage can use logical operations to abstract problems.
Draw or state a general conclusion from a number or items or instances, making a statement about what several people or things have in common, finding and extending patterns.
Guided Practice
The teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy, practice done with frequent and immediate teacher assistance.
Grade- Equivalent Scores
Test scores indicating the grade level and month of students performance to whom a test taker performed most similarly.
Holistic Scoring
Essay scoring method in which a single score is given to represent the overall quality of the essay across all dimensions.
Heirarchy of Needs
Maslow's concept that individual needs must be satisfied in this sequence; physiological, safety, love, and belongingness, esteem, and self actualization.
Howard Gardner
Suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on IQ, is too limited

He proposes eight different intelligences:
Bodily Kinestic
Inductive Reasoning
Collecting data to draw a conclusion that may or may not be true.
Information Processing
A means used to learn and remember knowledge.
Instructional Models
- Direct
- Indirect
- Independent
- Experiential
- Interactive