192 terms

Developmental Psychology

University Of Oklahoma
Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life are_________ life events
nonnormative life events
________ theory is a cognitive theory that uses the computer as an analogy to explain the workings of the mind.
__________ developed the theory of operant conditioning.
An eclectic theory of development assumes that_________
no single theory can account for all of human development.
Children in the preoperational stage of development lack the ability to_________
perform operations (internalized mental actions).
Professor Offord wants to assign subjects to experimental groups in such a way that each subject has an equal chance of being in any group. The best way to assign subjects is__________
Winnonna was found to have childhood depression; she goes on to have depression for the rest of her adult life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
Development is BEST defined as a pattern of growth that________
begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span.
Which of the following is the quickest way to gain information from a large amount of people?
All of the following are contributions of the psychoanalytic perspective, EXCEPT
all of perspectives include child, adolescent, and adult developmental stages.
Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
Life-span psychologists generally agree that______________
developmental change can be both continuous and discontinuous.
The concept of discontinuity is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT
quantitative development.
Jessica is a very attractive teenager with beautiful brown eyes and high cheekbones. She is constantly receiving compliments about her looks and being asked out on dates. Her genes have influenced her environment in the following manner:
There is evocative genotype-environment interaction between her genes and her environment.
Sidney is expecting her first child. She has just recently begun to feel kicking movements. Sidney is most likely in the ________ month of her pregnancy.
Carmella, a Latina woman, is pregnant and is getting prenatal care from her doctor. If the doctor is culturally sensitive, she will include Carmella's _______ in the treatment.
As opposed to physicians, doulas tend to:
spend more time with patients and give more emotional support.
Natural childbirth consists of all of the following, EXCEPT
The earliest point at which a fetus can have a chance to survive outside the womb is during
the third trimester.
Which of the following is more likely to occur in the child of a woman who smokes?
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
The Food and Drug Administration recommends the following:
Pregnant women should consume no caffeine or consume it sparingly.
While Sally's mother was pregnant with her, she smoked and drank alcohol, which adversely affected Sally's lung development.After Sally was born, she was placed into an environment with two parents who smoked.As Sally continued to develop, she was diagnosed with asthma, a breathing disorder.The development of this disorder could be explained by the concept of
the epigenetic view.
Chromosome abnormalities occur when_________
whole chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis.&&&&& harmful genes are inherited
The baby's position in the uterus that causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the vagina.
breech position
A complex molecule, with a double helix shape, that contains genetic information.
Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
psychoactive drugs
The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth.
A chromosomal abnormality that is characterized by an extra copy of chromosome 21.A person with this disorder typically has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over the eyelids, a protruding tongue, short limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities.
down syndrome
Children living in poverty tend to have __________ vocabularies when compared with wealthier children.
smaller overall
At the fireworks show, Michael is afraid and thinks his newborn sister is sick when she suddenly flings her arms and legs out from her body, then pulls them in tightly. Michael's mom is not concerned because she knows that this is just the baby's __________ reflex.
The specialization of function in each of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex in the brain is called__________?
Kevin loves to say, "Da, da, da, da" over and over again. This is an example of what type of communication?
Implicit memory is to __________, as explicit memory is to __________.
unconscious; conscious
It is believed that humans acquired language about __________ years ago.
When children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world, they shift from one stage of thought to next. The mechanism through which this shift occurs is called
Your infant daughter requires surgery to correct a foot abnormality. Should she receive anesthesia?
Yes; recent work indicates that infants can feel pain.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Following birth, some synaptic connections strengthen, while other unused ones are pruned.
Behaviorists believe that language is
learned through reinforcement.
The part of the neuron that carries signals away from the cell body is the___________
A decreased responsiveness to a stimulus that has been repeatedly presented is referred to_________
According to Jean Piaget, __________ actions or mental representations that organize knowledge in infancy.
____________ are chemicals contained at the end of the axon that pass information to another neuron.
__________ consists of strings of consonant-vowel combinations (e.g., da-da-da-da) that babies make at about 6 months of age.
____________ is the interpretation of the information that has been sensed.
During phase 1 of John Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment, what is MOST likely to occur?
An infant instinctively and indiscriminately directs attachment to familiar and unfamiliar people.
Marcos is 16 and eager to graduate from high school and go on to college. He has a clear sense of what he wants for a career and has well-defined values. Which of the following BEST accounts for Marcos' sense of identity?
He developed autonomy during childhood.
What types of behaviors in caregivers create a sense of shame and doubt in children?
overprotectiveness and criticism
Daniel and Guadalupe are angry with one another because of differences in their spending habits. Guadalupe snaps at their daughter and sends her to her room even though the little girl is not misbehaving. According to Jay Belsky's description of family interactions, this situation is an example of
an indirect influence of the marital relationship on the child.
Which of the following is generally true about child-care settings across the United States, according to your text?
They vary widely in quality.
In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a(n)__________ temperament, whereas in China, a(n) _________ temperament is more highly valued.
active; inhibited
Blanca rarely holds her baby Joey and tends to respond to his needs in an angry, irritable fashion. It is most likely that Joey will develop a _________ with his mother.
insecure avoidant attachment
A smile that does NOT occur in response to external stimuli is called a(n)
reflexive smile.
Monsena is an independent and adventurous child who likes to explore new places in her environment. However, her mother is overly controlling and rigid. Developmental psychologists would say that a discussion of this discrepancy concerns
goodness of fit.
With regard to the physiological basis of temperament, Jerome Kagan argues that children inherit a physiology that predisposes them to develop a particular type of temperament. He also believes that
through experience children learn to modify their temperament.
__________ ________attachment is an attachment classification that is characterized by the infant's behaviors in the Strange Situation. Infants in this classification engage in little interaction with the caregiver, are not upset when the caregiver leaves the room, and do not reestablish contact with the caregiver on reunion.
Insecure avoidant
A ___________ ________ is a smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. It happens during the month after birth and usually during sleep.
reflexive smile
The _________ __________ is an observational measure of infant attachment in which the infant experiences a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger.
Strange Situation
Emotions, such as embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt, appear in infants/toddlers around two years of age. These emotions are referred to as _________ __________ emotions because they involve the emotional reactions of others when they are expressed by children.
A _______ _______ is a type of "baby cry" that is characterized by a sudden appearance of loud crying without preliminary moaning followed by breath-holding.
pain cry
What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?
ethnic origin and nutrition
Between ages 3 and 6 years, which part of the brain grows the fastest?
the prefrontal cortex
Myelination occurs in the brain when:
nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat.
Brendan is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to:
be patient and recognize that Brendan is developing as a normal 3-year-old.
Gross motor skills are to fine motor skills as ________ is to ________.
hopping; writing
According to research by Nader and others (2006), ___ percent of children who were at risk of being overweight at the age of 3 were still at the same risk or were overweight at the age of 12.
The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is:
Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that:
children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.
In talking with Grandma on the phone, little Marcelo suddenly exclaims, "Oh, look at that pretty red bird!" When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Marcelo says, "Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!" He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of:
Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?
Lack of conservation is reflected in centration.
A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:
the task is more difficult than the child can do alone.
When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:
Latoya talks to herself frequently, especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Latoya is:
using private speech to organize and regulate her thinking.
Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _______ and more attention to what is _______.
salient; relevant
Shantal is taking a test where she hears a random list of numbers such as "7. . . 4 . . . 9 . . . 3." When the list is finished, Shantal is asked to repeat the whole list back in the right order. Shantal is having her ________ tested.
short-term memory span
Six-year-old Tracy was a witness to a robbery and has been asked to testify at trial. The defense will argue that her testimony is invalid because:
her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
The theory of _______ refers to the idea that children can begin thinking about their own thought processes.
At what age do children have a solid understanding of false beliefs?
4-5 years
_________ refers to the rules that apply to forming correct words or sentences in a language.
Project __________ is a program designed to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds.
Head Start
This theorist stated that the psychological stage of childhood was "initiative versus guilt." - ________
Erik Erickson
________ parenting is kind of parenting style in which parents are uninvolved in their children's life. They are neither warm nor controlling.
____________ parenting is a kind of parenting style in which parents are warm, nurturing, and involved with their children. The parents, however, place few demands or controls on their children
__________ abuse is a type of child maltreatment that is characterized by the infliction of physical injury as a result of such things as spanking, punching, and shaking a child.
________ _______is involves the development of thoughts, feelings, and actions regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.
Moral Development
_______ _________ is the belief that when a rule is broken, punishment is sure to follow.
Immanent justice
A parent who spanks his/her children frequently is most likely to be a(n):
authoritarian parent.
A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an individual's perception is called a
In general, which of the following BEST describes birth-order effects?
They are limited in predicting behavior considering the many other influencing factors.
Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single-parent families?
United States
Penelope has low self-esteem and is unhappy. She appears to be anxious around her peers and has few friends. Her teacher asks her why she sat by herself at lunch. Penelope stated that the other kids would not want her to join them, because she is ugly and dumb. It is most likely that she grew up in a home with parents who were
In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year-old children, about __________ reported that they frequently yelled at their children.
Tatia wants to know how good a tennis player she is. To determine this, she should play with________
her same-aged best friend
Shame, embarrassment, and guilt are examples of
self-conscious emotions.
Jerome and Hani got up early on Saturday morning and decided to make "breakfast in bed" for their mother. While reaching for the bed tray in the back of the hall cabinet, they accidentally bumped, and broke, one of their mother's favorite porcelain dolls. Jerome KNEW that he is going to get into "big trouble"; and, he thought that he SHOULD get into big trouble. Hani told him not to worry because Mom would understand that it was an accident. In what stage would Jean Piaget categorize the moral reasoning of Jerome and Hani?
Jerome—heteronomous morality; Hani—autonomous morality
Knowing about knowing is called______
__________is category of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell.
________ ________ _________ ___________ is a category of disability in which children display inattention and impulsivity and may or may not have high levels of physical activity.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
___________ retardation is characterized by no evidence of organic brain damage, but the individual's IQ is between 50 and 70.
This theorist suggested that the cognitive skill that emerges in middle childhood is the ability to think/reason with logic: ____________
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142) requires___________
a free and appropriate education for all children.
Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood is likely a result of___________
increased myelination of the central nervous system.
A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or in the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem correctly, the child most likely is in which stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory?
concrete operational stage
What percentage of mentally retarded Americans are considered moderately retarded?
about 6%
Which of the following is the MOST appropriate use of intelligence test results?
They should be considered one aspect of a person's whole range of talents.
Lewis Terman's (1925) study of approximately 1,500 children with high IQs shows that_________
high IQ in childhood is a good predictor of academic success in adolescence and adulthood.
Julio understands that although he is older than his brother, he is younger than his sister. This is because Julio understands___________
The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called___________
divergent thinking
Is it possible to develop an intelligence test that is truly culturally fair?
No. There are too many different variations in test-takers' cultures to address them all.
Organic retardation is caused by__________
physical damage to brain tissues.
_______ ___________ is a kind of discipline that uses reasoning and focuses children's attention on the consequences of their actions for others.
Inductive discipline
___________ is the presence of positive masculine and positive feminine characteristics in the same individual.
A ___________ peer status is held by children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend, but are not disliked by peers. These children are often described as "shy" by their peers.
Jaymon is a third-grader asked by his teacher to describe himself. What is the most likely description Jaymon will give?
"I am friendly."
Self-esteem is to _______ self-evaluation as self-concept is to _______ self-evaluation.
global; domain-specific
Children have the highest self-esteem when:
they perform competently in domains that are important to them.
Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of
Tiesha's behavior is controlled by external rewards and punishments reflecting which level of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
preconventional reasoning
Your best friend sideswipes a car and drives away without reporting the accident. You do not report it either, even though you worry about the owner's loss, but over the next few days, you do talk to your friend about it. You don't talk to anyone else about it because you want to stay loyal to your friend. Your actions suggest that you are in which of Kohlberg's moral reasoning stages?
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Which of the following statements represents a criticism of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
It is not what one thinks, but what one does that is most important for morality.
Carol Gilligan reports that males tend to use a(n) _______ perspective when making moral judgments, whereas females tend to use a(n) _______ perspective.
justice; care
Comparing the math abilities of males and females, research, such at that done by Janet Shibley Hyde, shows that__________
there is no significant difference between the sexes.
Boys are more _______ aggressive, whereas girls can be more _______ aggressive.
physically; verbally
Elena has been rejected by most of her peers, whereas Diana is neglected by them. Which of the following would be expected about these two children?
Elena will probably be more disruptive in school and at home than Diana.
Angie's mother allows her to schedule her own study and relaxation times, with the expectation that Angie must continue doing well in school and must discuss her activities with her mother ahead of time. Her mother checks on Angie's school progress frequently and talks with Angie about her social life and problems. This approach is called:
In several studies, a positive correlation was found between boys who were both rejected by their peers and aggressive in elementary school and _______ when they were adolescents and young adults.
increased delinquency
Approximately ________ of stepfamily couples stay remarried.
By the time children get to middle and late childhood, they will spend approximately ___ of their time interacting with peers, as opposed to only 10% when they are 2 years of age.
Research has found that between 70 and 80% of victims of bullying are victimized by:
a classmate.
Latoya has been struggling with her writing assignments. Frustrated, she slams her notebook closed and says, "I am just no good at writing and that won't ever change." This statement reflects a _________ mind-set.
Which of the following statements is true?
Girls are just as tall as and weigh more than boys in early adolescence.
In pubertal development, ________ is the dominant hormone in males, whereas ________ is the dominant hormone in females.
Testosterone; estradiol
Juanita engaged in sexual intercourse at the age of 13. Research indicates that Juanita is likely to:
drink, use drugs, and be delinquent.
In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a _______ risk of acquiring genital herpes.
Which of the following MOST accurately describes the situation for the children of single teenage mothers?
They are more likely to have low birth weights, neurological problems and childhood illness.
What question can 12-year-old Jackson answer that he could not answer when he was younger?
Does heaven exist?
According to Jean Piaget, adolescents differ from younger children in that younger children cannot:
systematically test hypotheses.
Tasha is having difficulty getting along with her best friend. She decides to think through the problem, writing down all the difficulties and try to generate possible reasons for them. She then considers what she can do to deal with the problems, weighing the pros and cons of each possibility. She is using which of the following to solve her problem?
hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Jason was confused about whether to propose marriage to his girlfriend. After considerable internal debate, he decided to propose. After he proposed and she accepted, he felt great and knew he had done the right thing. As the wedding date approached, however, he was overcome with doubt. He considered calling off the wedding but did not. Today he is very happily married and is glad that he stayed with his decision. Jason's experience is an example of:
the MAMA cycle of identity development.
Steve and Jen believe that they should make certain that their adolescent knows the right choices to make, and they use harsh punishment when their directives are not followed. This pattern is likely to promote _______ in their adolescent.
identity foreclosure
A key way in which the old and new models of parent-adolescent relationships DIFFER is that the:
new model suggests that a close relationship exists between adolescents and their parents.
Conflict with parents most often escalates during:
early adolescence.
Aaron is a junior in high school. Some of Aaron's close friends have recently started engaging in vandalism and writing graffiti. What is Aaron likely to do?
He is less likely to join in these behaviors than when he was 2 years younger.
Although Kesha lives in an affluent suburb with parents who are white-collar professionals, she still feels the stress of being an ethnic minority in America. This is because:
discrimination and bias pervade the United States across economic levels.
What was the average life expectancy in 1900?
47 years
What percentage of the U.S. population is older than 65 years?
The term __________ is given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.
Sensitivity to ____ pitches usually declines first among ____.
high; men
Mattie is in middle adulthood and can expect all of the following changes to her cardiovascular system, EXCEPT:
shortness of breath will occur more frequently.
What is the most common change in sleep patterns of adults during middle age?
They spend less time in deep sleep.
The idea that menopause causes depression, loss of sexual desire, and psychological disturbance is:
inaccurate for most women.
Female menopause is more _________, whereas male menopause is more _________.
physical; psychological
Fluid intelligence is the ability to:
reason abstractly.
A reasonable explanation for why 40-year-olds and 60-year-olds show differences in intelligence test scores is:
cohort effects.
The Seattle Longitudinal Study concluded that middle age is a time of:
peak performance for verbal abilities and verbal memory.
Recent research suggests that religion can promote physical health due to:
lifestyle issues, social networks, and coping with stress
As he looks back over his life, Chris realizes that his work was not as important to him as he believed, and that he lost too much valuable time with his children. If he could do it over again, he would work less and spend more time with his children. According to Erik Erikson, Chris is experiencing some degree of:
A major criticism of the theory of the midlife crisis is that:
it has been greatly exaggerated.
An assumption that underlies the contemporary life-events approach to adult development is that adult development is:
development is a result of life events, our adaptation to those events, and the life-stage context that encapsulates those events.
Cohort effects are differences based on:
historical context
How has the social clock changed over the last few decades?
It is more variable from person to person now than it was in the past
Mngada is in middle adulthood in her native culture, a nonindustrialized country. According to what is known about midlife in different cultures, we can expect that Mngada will probably:
not experience much of a midlife crisis.
Of Costa and McCrae's Big Five personality traits, which one is most likely to increase in early and middle adulthood?
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the results of studies on adult personality?
The studies indicate both stability and change in adult personality.
In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following characteristics generally changed across time for the adult?
nurturance or hostility
According to the research of Vaillant, which of the following characteristics in middle age was the best predictor of having an enduring and happy marriage between the ages of 75 and 80?
Which of the following is TRUE about the empty nest syndrome?
It is an uncommon problem for most middle-aged adults.
Ron and his sister, Sarah, are both in their mid-50s and have a close personal relationship. Most research on sibling relationships suggests that:
they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood, too.
On average, the adult brain loses __________ to _________ of its weight between the ages of 20 and 90.
5 to 10%
At age 72, Faye has a scan to assess the status and functioning of her brain. Her doctor also just completed a scan on a 50-year-old woman. As the doctor compares the two scans, it will be normal to see ________ in Faye's brain.
fewer neurons but more dendrites
Which of the sensory domains is most strongly related to independent living skills, intellectual activities, and leisure activities in older adults?
Compared with younger adults, older adults are ________ sensitive to pain.
Although there are differences in the quality of care in nursing homes in the United States, about __________ are considered to be seriously deficient.
Rodin and Langer (1977) conducted a controlled study in which one group of nursing-home patients was given increased control over daily routines and other responsibilities and another group was not. The main finding in this study was that the increased control:
improved the lives of the patients.
Marsha, an adult in her 70s, can expect a decline in certain types of attention but not in:
sustained attention.
What is true about the relationship between semantic memory and aging?
Older adults often take longer to retrieve semantic information, but they usually can retrieve it.
Which type of memory is less likely to be adversely affected by aging?
Charles has a moderate retirement income and lives comfortably. He stays home most of the time and avoids contact with his neighbors. He often talks to his wife about how he almost wishes his company had not offered such good early retirement incentives, because it was "too good to turn down." Charles is MOST likely to:
not be happy with his retirement.
Alzheimer disease involves a deficiency in the neurotransmitter:
Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:
life review
Ron is a retired college professor. Ron's arthritis is getting worse, but he wants to remain active and use the skills he has developed. Which of the following would Ron do if his actions were consistent with the model of selective optimization with compensation?
focus on continuing one aspect of his former job, such as teaching, at a reduced rate and discontinue the rest
According to Baltes, successful aging is based on selection, optimization, and:
The model of selective optimization with compensation is based on the idea that older adults fare better when they:
develop positive and creative coping strategies to deal with their limitations.
What percentage of elderly women who live alone live in poverty?
According to research evidence, gender roles in the elder years tend to:
change, with only men becoming more feminine.
A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brain function. Her parents decide to take her off the life-support machines but are shocked when she continues to breathe on her own. Is the young woman dead?
It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.
Defining death as nonfunction of the higher cortex implies that:
human life depends on the abilities to think, behave, and have feelings.
Which of the following refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?
living will or advance directive
A person born in 1900 would most likely live until about age:
In contrast to those of many other cultures, people in the United States:
have less direct experience associated with death.
Elisabeth Kübler-Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?
denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Which of the following statements is an accurate criticism of Kübler-Ross's theory of dying?
She did not validate the existence of five stages, nor did independent research.
Most psychologists believe that it is best for dying individuals to:
be aware that they are dying.