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MCAS Words

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Protista
eukaryotic organisms that are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues (the odds and ends group)
Plantae
multicellular organisms that use photosynthesis to produce their own food
Animalia
multicellular organism that must eat other organisms for food
Fungi
multicellular organisms with cell walls that get their food through decomposing other organisms
Unicellular
an organism that is made up of only one cell, such as amoebas or yeast
Multicellular
an organism that is made up of more than one cell, like animals
Organelles
is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, such as the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi body
Plant Cell
different from animal cells in that their cells contain chloroplasts, a large vacuole, and a cell wall
Animal Cell
have a rounder shape from the lack of cell wall, and cannot make their own food
Gene
a unit of heredity in a living organism, a section of the DNA that codes for a protein
Chromosome
organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes. Humans have 2 sets of 23 chromosomes.
Asexual Reproduction
is a mode of reproduction by which offspring come from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only
Sexual Reproduction
is the creation of a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms
Cells
the basic unit of life
Tissues
a group of cells that perform the same function
Organs
a group of tissues that perform the same function (ex. Heart, lung)
Organ Systems
a group of organs that work together
Organisms
any living thing that can reproduce, respond to its environment and grow and develop
Consumer
receive their energy from eating other organisms, also known as a heterotroph
Producer
make their own food, also known as an autotroph
Decomposer
are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, like herbivores and predators, decomposers are heterotrophic
Weight
the mass of an object and the effect of gravity
Volume
the amount of space an object takes up (usually measured in cm3 or mL)
Mass
how much matter and object has (usually measured in grams)
Density
mass divided by volume (how much stuff fits in a certain space)
Atoms
The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons
Molecules
two or more atoms that are chemically bonded
Compounds
two or more atoms from different elements that are chemically bonded with a chemical formula
Elements
one type of atom, can be found on the periodic table (such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen)
Pure Substance
has definite unique chemical properties (melting point, boiling point), and has a specific formula that can be written
Mixture
is a material system made up by two or more different substances which are mixed together but are not combined chemically.
Boiling Point
is when a liquid begins to change into a gas, can be sued to identify what the substance is
Melting Point
of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid, can be used to identify what the substance is
Potential Energy
stored energy due to position
Kinetic Energy
energy due to motion
Thermal energy
results in the temperature of something, the more thermal energy, the higher the temperature, which means the move active the molecules and the less dense the substance
Lithosphere
outer most shell of the Earth, made up of the crust and the upper mantle
Mantle
the area of hot rock that has convection currents which cause shifts in the lithosphere
Core
the hot metal ball inside of the earth
Erosion
is the process of weathering and transport of solids (sediment, soil, rock and other particles) in the natural environment or their source and deposits them elsewhere. It usually occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice
Weathering
is the breaking down of Earth's rocks, soils and minerals
Plate Tectonics
The lithosphere is broken up into what are called "tectonic plates". The lithospheric plates ride on the mantle. These plates move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries.
Atmosphere
the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth, the further out you travel the fewer molecules and therefore the less dense the atmosphere
Hydrosphere
describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet
Ocean currents
is a continuous, directed movement of ocean water
Galaxy
a huge group of single stars, star systems, star cluster, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
Universe
all of space and everything in it
Planet
A planet is a body that is in orbit around a sun, has enough self-gravity to remain a sphere, AND has cleared the neighborhood on which it orbits (is in control of its orbit)
Gravity
the forces the pulls objects toward each other- like dropping objects falling towards the ground on earth or the sun's gravity pulling the earth into an orbit
Inertia
the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion- the more mass an object has the more inertia it has
Rotation
the spinning motion of a planet on its axis- this causes night and day on Earth
Revolution
the movement of an object around another object - like the moon's revolution around the Earth
Orbit
the path of an object as it revolves around another object in space- like the path the moon takes as it moves in its revolution around the Earth
Inner planets
4 small, dense, and rocky surfaced planets often called the terrestrial planets- Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars)
Outer planets
often called the gas giants, they are much larger and more massive than Earth and they do not have solid surfaces
Seasons
created by the tilt in the Earth's axis