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World Geography Unit Test: Resources, Geopolitics, and Economics
This set, created by Lisa Moomaw and Sarah Chieng, is based off the study guide for the Pre-AP World Geography Unit test. Good luck on Thursday/Friday!
Terms in this set (71)
a king allows for nobles to use his land in exchange for their loyalty and military service
a lord gives serfs land,shelter, and protection in exchange for work, and almost everything needed for daily life is produced on the manor, or lord's estate
Which two countries are in conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh region?
Armenia and Azerbaijan. The land belongs to Azerbaijan, but is populated with mostly Armenians.
Why does Russia need to expand so much?
Geographically, Russia has no access to ports and cannot effectively defend against its enemies without being large because there are so few natural barriers near its center. By expanding, it can create buffers that separate it from invasions.
Where is Russia's weakest point (through which three invaders have entered Russia)?
Its northeast border between the Carpathian Mts and the Baltic Sea is completely open. Napolean, Wilhelm II, and Hitler have all used it to their advantage.
What are the resulting challenges for Russia for being so large in size?
Efficiently transporting food is very challenging. Also, since so much of its land is inhabited by conquered peoples, controlling them is a challenge.
Why does the author of "The Geopolitics of Russia: Permanent Struggle" believe Russia's government must be centralized and autocratic, and must rule its people by terror?
A powerful center is required for development, so it must be centralized. The fact that starvation is prevalent and that many of its inhabitants are conquered peoples means it must control its people with strong security and often terror.
Why did the Soviet Union collapse, according to the author of "The Geopolitics of Russia: Permanent Struggle"?
1. Expanding too far into central Europe was too costly, 2. being landlocked meant its economy was weak (and its economy was further sabotaged by its opponents), and 3. it diverted too many resources into the arms race
What is Russia's cycle of expansion and contraction as seen in "The Geopolitics of Russia: Permanent Struggle"?
Russia needs to expand to protect itself from enemies, but when it does, it collapses and contracts because transporting food and controlling its people becomes too great a challenge.
What security and economic issues face the Central Asian countries?
Most of the Central Asian countries suffer from high corruption within their governments, and conflicts with each other--Armenia has no relations with two of its neighbors, Azerbaijan and Turkey, for example. Many seek protection from Russia as they are former members of the Soviet Union. Radicalism is growing in the region, causing instability as well. The countries have poor infrastructure, and the falling price of oil causes economic crises as well.
How does the US struggle to balance its values and interests in the Central Asia and Caucasus region?
The US relies heavily on the oil in the region (interests), but most countries that export a lot of oil have corrupt and dictatorial governments, which opposes the US values of freedom and democracy. However, the US can't try to change that without economic repercussions, and is instead forced to ignore the difference of values.
According to the Frontline World: Putin's Plan video, how has Putin tried to solidify his control of Russian politics?
The Kremlin (Russian security) has made it hard for Putin's opposition to be in the media and to get on the ballot. Also, Kremlin-sponsored youth camps rally youngsters to support Putin.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of free trade?
A: the US economy will stay on top and ahead of other countries because it will be able to easily use cheaper labor and products from abroad.
D: workers in other, poorer countries will continue to face poor and unfair working conditions, unchallenged by the US
What are the advantages and disadvantages of decreasing the flow of jobs overseas?
A: The US workers will have less foreign competition and less jobs will be lost
D: the economies, and therefore the welfare of the people, of the other countries will be destroyed, and the US will no longer be able to use the cheaper labor and products from abroad, meaning products will be more expensive
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the US using trade policy to address global concerns and to promote international values?
A: The countries affected might be forced to follow US values and use less child labor, avoid violating human rights, and avoid environmental degradation.
D: The people in the countries that are sanctioned will suffer the consequences of the following economic difficulties. Also, the US will not be able to use the cheapest labor and products anymore.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of fair trade?
A: workers around the world will have better conditions and receive fair compensation for their work. Also, the US will have more high-skill jobs and international relations might be improved.
D: Prices of most products will be much higher without the cheap labor, so the US will struggle more to stay on top of the world economy.
How do textile manufacturers benefit from using factories in countries with cheap labor?
since the workers aren't paid much, it's much cheaper to manufacture the products in countries with cheap labor, meaning the products can be less expensive and the manufacturers can make more money.
How has the rise of textile manufacturing had social impacts in Bangladesh?
women can go to work and make more money in the textile factories, meaning they are seen as less of a burden and therefore have more freedom to marry who they choose and decide their own path in life
How has the rise of textile manufacturing had social impacts in Colombia?
women can use textile manufacturing to make enough money to support their dreams and goals in life--for example, the woman featured in the NPR article is using her profits to start a baking business that she enjoys.
How did the shipping container transform the global economy?
with the shipping container, transporting goods abroad became extremely cheap, creating a gateway for companies to begin exploiting cheap labor abroad and allowing trade to become an integral part of the global economy
Why are US subsidies for American cotton farmers considered unfair by foreign cotton growers?
the US subsidies for its cotton farmers allow the farmers to sell their cotton for much cheaper, putting the foreign growers at a disadvantage because they either have to make their cotton cheaper than is profitable for them or lose money from no one buying their cotton in favor of cheaper US cotton
What are the comparative advantages of the US, Bangladesh, and Colombia with textile manufacturing? How do they change over time?
the US has superb technology, but workers are paid much more, so its more expensive to manufacture in the US, even with the greater efficiency. Colombia's workers are paid considerably less, but still have more efficiency than Bangladeshi technology. In Bangladesh, the lack of powerful technology means less efficiency, but the labor is extremely cheap. This changes as Colombia's technology improves, putting it at more of an advantage, but the increased price of labor that comes with its development will put Colombia in a position more similar to the US. The same could occur in Bangladesh, making its labor less cheap but more efficient as well.
the merging of regional economies in which nations become dependent on each other for goods and services
the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets. Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society. This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces
good or service purchased from a seller in another country
good or service sold to a buyer in another country
Balance of Trade
The relationship between the value of a country's exports and its imports
A situation occurring when the value of a nation's imports exceeds that of its exports
A situation occurring when the value of a nation's exports exceeds that of its imports
A tax or duty levied on imports. Also called a duty
The absence of any trade restrictions
A period during which the purchasing power of the dollar is falling. Caused by such things as increases in demand or costs
any form of wealth capable of being employed in the production of more wealth
The socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a contract (employment), and the employer buys it, often in a labour market
The act of a government taking public ownership of private industry or assets
to change (as a business or industry) from public to private control or ownership
advocating for government economic protection for domestic producers through restrictions on foreign competitors in the form of trade barriers, currency devaluation, etc
a general slowdown in economic activity over a period of time
a country with the resources to produce a good or service more efficiently than another country is said to have a comparative advantage. The term is a basic economic concept that explains why nations trade
total value of all goods and services produced by a country over a year
the total value of all goods and services produced within a country in a given
period of time
gathering of raw materials to use immediately or in the making of
a final product; Major businesses in this sector include agriculture, agribusiness,
fishing, forestry and all mining and quarrying industries.
adding value tp materials by changing their form, AKA (also known as) the manufacturing sector
providing business or professional services, (AKA service sector); The service sector consists of the "soft" parts of the economy such as insurance, government, tourism, banking, retail, education, and social services.
provide information, management, and research activities by highly-trained persons, (AKA information sector)
the mangerial job associated with decision making in large corporations
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations formed in 1995
the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development formed in 1945 is an internationaly supported bank that provides loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing and stabilizing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) eliminated the majority of tariffs on products traded among the United States, Canada and Mexico, and gradually phases out other tariffs over a 10-year period
What precedes communism according to Marx? (Put the systems in order.) Why?
feudalism/manoralism, capitalism, class struggle, workers' revolt, socialism, communism
Feudalism/manoralism is modernized into capitalism by the rise of private ownership and freedom of competition. Unequal classes result in a class struggle, which turns into a workers revolt as the workers try to overtake the upper class. When this succeeds, socialism begins in an attempt to create a classless society guided by the government. Communism occurs when the government is no longer needed.
What are the main ideas of The Communist Manifesto?
Almost everything is owned by the government so that no one has an unfair advantage. The rich are taxed heavily so that there is no upper and lower class. All people are equally obligated to work and have the same rights and accesses.
non-aristocratic business owners
private ownership of industry and freedom of competition (what we have in the US)
the belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights for all, and that it is the gov't's job to protect these rights
democratic socialism (3 characteristics)
1. government controls key industries, but not all property and business, 2. progressive taxation--wealthy taxed more than poor, 3. tax revenue supports gov-run health care, education, and other elements of social welfare (common in Western Europe)
government controls all industry and property and the private and public lives of the citizens (Soviet Union)
How did the duel revolution of industrialization and democratization occur in Western Europe and the US? How does that connect to socialism?
In Western Europe and the US, industrialization and democratization came hand-in-hand, meaning socialism there is usually democratic. In countries where that isn't the case, socialism tends to be more totalitarian.
An increased number of commonalities among the countries of the world
How do liberal democracies compare to illiberal democracies?
In liberal democracies, citizens have privacy and the gov doesn't control the media. The people control the military. In illiberal democracies, countries have elections but not civil liberties and rule of law (i.e. Russia).
When and how did the 3 waves of democratization occur?
1st: happened gradually in late 1700s, US and France. 2nd: after WW2-1960s, decolonization occurred. 3rd: elimination of dictators in S America, E Europe, and Africa.
What is a market economy?
an economy without any control of the gov't
What is a mixed economy?
an economy where the government has significant but not total control
What is marketization?
government recreates a market where goods function in a competitive environment that determines their value
What is privatization?
transfer of state owned property to private ownership
What is fragmentation?
divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity are created
What is nationalism?
strong belief in the interests and sovereignty of a nation-state
What is the politicization of religion?
the use of religious principles to promote political ends
What is a command economy?
government controls the economy completely
What is Samuel Huntington's "clash of civilizations" model? How does it relate to the Ukraine conflict?
It is inevitable that civilizations of people will have conflicts because of their differences according to Huntington. Ukraine fits this model in that the "civilizations" of Russians clash with "civilizations" of nationalist Ukrainians, causing conflict.
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