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Any change to the constitution


A bill that gives a certain amount of money to government programs to spend


This part of the constitution explains how the government works


a legislatuer that has two or more houses or parts


idea that allows people to own businesses and property


Community member that owes their loyalty to the government


The study of the rights and duties of all citizens

Civil liberty

Freedom to think and axct how you want without government interference


Small group of people within a larger group that has a specific purpose

Concurring opinion

An opinion written by a justice in the majority but for diffrent reasons


A written plan for government

Defamatory speech

False speech that damages a person's reputation


A government in which the people rule

Dissenting opinion

An opinion written by a justice disagreeing with the majority


Organized system used to manage a country's resources and productivity


A person appointed to vote in the Electoral college.

Exclusive jurisdiction

Authority of only federal courts to hear and decide certain cases

Expressed powers

powers in the constitution used only by the national government

Federal bureaucracy

Includes cabinet departments, independent agencies and their workers


Government system where power is shared between tha national and state levels


The act of talking a bill to death

Free enterprise

Businesses can compete with others for profit without government interference

General election

an election in whichvoters choose people for various offices


The ruling authority of a comunity


Accusing a government official of misconduct

Judicial review

Power to say wether laws or actions are constitutional


A law-making group of people


Getting more that half of the votes available


A legal process needed to follow in order to obtain citizenship

Original jurisdiction

Authority of a court to hear a case for the first time


Legally releasing a person from their punishment by the president

Political appointee

A person hired by the president to a federal position

Political Party

Voters with common beliefs who wans to control the government


This part of the constitution explains the purpose of the constitution

Primary election

An election where voters choose candidates to run for presidency

Prior Restraint

The censorship of information before it has been published or broadcasted

Public opinion

Ideas or attitudes that people hold about an issue


The redistribution of representatives amongst the states following a census


To send a case back to a lower court to be tried again


The postponment of a persons' punishment by the president

Reserved powers

powers kept for the state to use


the fundimental economic problems

Seditious speech

Urging resistance to or promoting the overthrow of the government


An agreement made between governments of two or mre countries


Whoever gets the most popular votes gets all the electoral votes from a state


the act of refusing to sign a bill


The right to choose candidates to run for president.

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