230 terms

Agronomy

STUDY
PLAY
Wine
Alcoholic beverage made from the juices of grapes
Rice wine
sake
barley wine
zima
71, 27, 2
Approximately__% of world grape production is used for wine and juice. __% as fresh fruit and __% as dried fruit.
Italy
Top grape producer
California
top state grape prodeucer
France
top wine producer
cooper
someone who makes wooden barrels casks and other similar wooden objects
vintner
a wine merchant or producer
sommelier
a person in a resturant who specializes in wine
winemaker
person who makes wine
Oenologist
wine scientist or wine chemist
Viticulturist
Person in the science of grape vines themselves
Vitis vinifera
most grapes come from this variety
vitis labrusca
north american table and grape juice grape vines, sometimes used for wines
vitis riparia
wild vine of N America, sometimes used for wine and jam
vitis rotundifolia
the muscadines. used for jams and wine
vitis vulpina
Frost grape. native to the mideast to the coast up to new york
vitis amurensis
Most important Asian species
Varietal
When one of these varieties is used as the main grape, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, or Merlot for example, the result is a
vintage
a blend of several grape varieties
French-American hybrids
are planted in substantial numbers in cool climate viticultural areas
phylloxera
a root louse. american species of grapes have this that makes them resistant to grafting
V vinifera
most of the worlds vineyards are planted with these europeon vines
Vvinifera
very susceptiple to the aphid insect
by vinification methods
Wine Classification by__. these include classifications such as sparkling, still, fortified, rose, and blush
by grape variety
Wine Classification by__. Such as cabernet, sauvignon, pint noir
By taste
Wine classification by__. their primary impression on the drinkers palate
by vintage
Wines may be classified by the year in which the grapes are harvested
by price
classification: premium, jug, ect
appellations
conventions that dictate where the grapes were grown and which grapes went into the wine and how theyre vinified
Enology
word that comes from the greek words for wine and study, is the term to describe the science of winemaking
ethanol + carbon dioxide
glucose + yeast =
yeast
added to a solution containing glucose, converts the simple sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide
vitis vinifera
as many as 4000 varieties have been develpoed and are used in the production of wines
table wines, sparkling, and fortified
3 main categories of wine:
sulfating
upon arriving at the winery, grapes are treated with 50-75 ppm of free sulfur dioxide. this process is called
sulfur dioxide
plays two important roles. Firstly, it is an anti-microbial agent, and as such is used to help curtail the growth of undesirable fault producing yeasts and bacteria.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
the species of yeast that is used to ferment grape juice into wine is
Acetobacter
the most problematic bacteria that can turn wine into vinger overnight
malolactic fermentation
oak fermentred wine may go through secondary fermentation called
aging
the time that a wine is aged is equal to the time that elapses between fermentation and drinking
Seperation, chilling, and bottling
after fermentation, the wine is drawn off to seperate it from dead yeast and other sediments that have precipitated from the juice
must
grapes are separated from the stems and gently crushed into a pulpy material called
tannins
the group of chemicals that naturally exist in the skin and seeds of the grapes
sparkling
this wine is produced in the same way as white wines until fermentation is complete
barley water hops and yeast
4 ingredients of beer
U.S.
top beer producer
czech republic
beer per capita consumption
hordeum vulgare
scientific name for barley
russia
top barley producer
malting
Half of the world's barley production is used as an animal feed. A large part of the remainder used for ____ and is a key ingredient in beer and whisky.
two-row and six-row
two forms of cultivated barley
two-row
oldest type of barley, higher protien
humulus lupulus
scientific name for hops
736
the first documented instance of hop cultivation was in ___ in present day germany
1079
first mention of use of hops was in
1629
cultivation of hops began in present day U.S. in
dry hopping
Adding hops after the wort has cooled and the beer has fermented is known as
bittering hops
hops boiled with beer
hop flavor or aroma
hops added to beer later impart som degree of
germany
top hops producer
malting
process by which barley is steeped in water, germinated, then kilned to convert insoluble starch to soluble substances and sugar
grist
Brewers' term for milled grains, or the combination of milled grains to be used in a particular brew
mash
to release malt sugars by soaking the grains in water. or the resultant mixture
mash tun
a tank where grist is soaked in water and heated in order to convert starch to sugar and extract the sugars from the grist
wort
the solution of grain sugars strained from the mash tun
yeast
a micro organism of the fungus family. Genus Saccharomyces
top fermenting yeast
one of the two types of yeast used in brewing. works better at warmer temps,and are able to tolerate higher alch concentrations
saccharomyces cerevisiae
also know as ale yeast, scientific name for top fermenting yeast.
bottom fermenting yeastccharomyces uvarum
One of the two types of yeast used in brewing. Bottom-fermenting yeast works well at low temperatures and ferments more sugars leaving a crisp, clean taste and then settles to the bottom of the tank. Also referred to as "lager yeast".
saccharomyces uvarum
scientific name for bottom fermenting yeast
pasteurization
heating the beer to 140-174 degrees to stabilize it microbiologically
Sparge
to spray grist with hot water in order to remove soluble sugars(maltose) This takes place at the end of the mash
Maltose
A water soluble, fermentable sugar contained in malt
3-5
fermentation of wort takes about how many days?
Taxus brevifolia
Pacific Yew (scientific name)
paclitaxel
this anti cancer drug is made from taxol contained in its bark
Metformin
most widley prescribed antidiabetic drug in the world
dried plant
the swedish word "druug" means
salicylic acid
active ingrediant in bark once prescribed by Hippocrates. lead to the develoment of asprin
doctrine of signatures
an ancient european philosophy that held that plants bearing parts that resembled human body parts or animal or other parts had useful regasrd to those things
Rauwolfia serpentina (snanke root)
source of the drug reserpine used in the treatment of hypertension
Hepatica acutiloba
scientific name for Hepatica
homeopathy
A system for treating disease based on the administration of minute doses of a drug that in massive amounts produces symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the disease itself.
marsh labrador tea
a homeopathic remedy ___ The dilution shows no molecules of the original herb
ivy poison
Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron,
derived from
one million
arnica montana D6 has a dilution thats one part in___.
modern homeopathic drugs
Zicam and Nasal Ease are examples of
digitalin (foxglove)
a group of medicines extracted from foxglove plants
Digitalis purpurea
The use of this extract containing digitoxin for the treatment of heart conditions was first described in 1785, which is considered the beginning of modern therapeutics. It is used to increase cardiac contractility and to control the heart rate.
vinca
scientific name for periwinkle
vincristine
one of the most potent antileukemic drugs in use today, was isolated in a search for diabetes treatments from vinca rosea
Mycobacterium leprae
leprosy or Hansens disease is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria
Chaulmoogra oil
British surgeon in India named Mouat, who in 1854 used this substance for leprosy treatment
Hydnocarpus anthelminthica
scientific name for chaulmoogra oil
Asthma, hay fever, and the common cold
Ephedra has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 5,000 years for the treatment of (3)
Ephedra
refers to the plant Ephedra sinica. E. sinica, known in Chinese as ma huang
Ephedrine
commonly used as a stimulant appetite suppressant concentration aid decongestant and to treat hypotension associated with anesthesia
aspirin and caffeine
Ephedra has also been used for weight loss, sometimes in a combination with___ and ____.
methamphetamine
Ephedra may also be used as a precursor in the illicit manufacture of
Susafed and Contact
Methamphetamine is easily "cooked up" in home laboratories using pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs such as
complementary and alternative medicine
term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard medical care.
acupuncture, chiropratic and herbal medicines
3 Examples of CAM therapies
dietary supplements
herbal medicine products are ____ ____ that people take to improve their health
natural
just because an herbal supplement is labeled "_____" does not mean it is safe or without any harmful effects. For example, the herbs kava and comfrey have been linked to serious liver damage.
that they do not have to meet the same standards as drugs and over-the-counter medications for proof of safety, effectiveness
In the United States, herbal and other dietary supplements are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as foods. This means
replicated, randomized, double-blind tests
3 tests that receive attention in mainstream medical publications are often questioned on methodological grounds or interpretation
peer-reviewed medical journals
these journals recieve more consideration than those published in specialized herbal journals
placebo
substance or procedure a patient accepts as medicine or therapy, but which has no objectively verifiable therapeutic activity. Any therapeutic effect is thought to be based on the power of suggestion.
repeated, large scale, randomized, and double blind tests
The scientific standard for pharmaceutical testing is
pharming
refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes
plant made pharmaceuticals (PMPs)
also refered to as biopharming, is a sub-sector of the biotechnology industry that involves the process of genetically engineering plants so that they can produce certain types of therapeutically important proteins and associate molecules such as peptides and secondary metabolites.
plant molecular farming
The third wave of agricultural biotechnology that refers to the cultivation of plants for industrially, medically, or scientifically useful biomolecules, rather than for traditional uses of food, feed, or fiber
pharm farming
the growing of molecules with pharmaceutical applications in selected crops.
a library has burned down
each time a rainforest medicine man dies, it is as if
Hevea brasiliensis
name for Para rubber tree
3000
Mesoamerican people perfected rubber more than ___ years ago
Tlachtlic
important ritual game of the mayans
The Para rubber tree
is of major economic importance because its sap-like extract (known as latex) can be collected and is the primary source of natural rubber
the amazon rainforest
the para rubber tree initially grew only in
Brazil
Country that provided the world with the rubber tree
bud grafting
This is essentially a cloning technique which ensures that genetically identical trees can be produced in unlimited numbers.
the estates and the smallholdings
two types of rubber plantations in most producing countries
Smallholdings, estates
_____tend to produce solid rubber while ______ are essentially large-scale farms, with professional management. Most latex comes from professionally managed estates.
false
True/False. Latex is made from sap
the sap
runs deeper inside the tree, beneath the cambium
the latex
runs in the ducts which are immediately outside the cambium
vulcanized
Natural rubber is often_____, a process by which rubber is heated and sulfur, peroxide or bisphenol are added to improve resilence and elasticity and to prevent it from degrading.
charles goodyear
The successful development of vulcanization is most closely associated with
Carbon black
often used as an additive to rubber to improve the strength, especially in tires
vulcanization
a treatment of rubber to give it certain qualities. ex) strength, elasticity, and resistance to solvents, and to render it impervious to moderate hot and cold temps.
Asia
main source of natural rubber
indonesia
largest rubber producder
U.S.
spends the most on natural rubber imports
china
spends most on synthetic and reclaimed rubber imports
figs(Ficus elastica), Castilla elastica (panama rubber tree), euphorbias, and the common dandelion
other plants containing latex
hypoallergenic
________ rubber can be made from Guayule
Gutta percha (palaquium gutta)
a genus of tropical trees native to southeast asia and northern australia. This material is an inelastic natural latex produced from the sap of these trees
liberia and nigeria
2 african rubber producing countries
worlds most expensive orchid
grown in kinabalu national park in sabah, malaysia in northern borneo
bonsai
japanese art form using mini trees grown in containers
beluga caviar
perhaps the most expensive food item in the world, costing over 2000 per pound
caviar
processed salted roe of certain species of fish, most notably the sturgeon and the salmon
sevruga caviar
caviar not worth its weight in gold
choupiquet (Amia calva)
the roe used to make cajun caviar is from the___. common market name is bowfin
sturgeon, paddlefish, and bowfin
only 3 true caviar producing species found in the USA
Saffron
the most expensive spice in the world. it is the three stigmas and style of the crocus flower
truffles
are from the underground ascomycetes family and are reputed for their high prices
black perigord truffles
take 6 years to grow and cost 50/ounce
the white truffle of alba, italy
truffle worth its weight in gold
true kobe beef
raised from the black Tajima-ushi breed of Wagyu cattle - is produced only in Hyōgo Prefecture in Japan. It is bred according to secret, and strict traditions. It is fed beer and grain and produces meat that is tender and fatty. The beef can cost up to $300 per pound.
Cave Swifts Nests
considered a delicacy in China and are one of the most expensive animal products consumed by humans.
fugu
the Japanese word for pufferfish and is also a Japanese dish prepared from the meat of pufferfish
foie gras
second to caviar, one of the finest western foods available. It is the liver of ducks or geese
gravage
force-feeding of the animal of grain via a tube down the throat.
Encephalartos woodii
Worlds rarest plant is a cycad famous for being extinct in nature, and for the fact that there is no known female specimen on Earth. Only one clump of male plants has ever been found
cycad
The common landscape plant the Sago Palm is actually a
tulip mania
term used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble. The term originally came from the period in the history of the Netherlands during which demand for tulip bulbs reached such a peak that enormous prices were charged for a single bulb
semper augustus (6000 florins)
This tulip is famous for being the most expensive tulip sold during the tulipomania in the Netherlands in the 17th century.
bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
The worlds oldest living thing. living for nearly 5,000 years high in the White Mountains of California and the Snake Range of eastern Nevada
spruce
the worlds oldest recorded tree is a 9.550 year old _____ in Sweden
creosote bush or aspen
Some of the oldest single living organisms known are bristlecone pines, though some plants such as ______ ___ or ____ form clonal colonies that may be many times older
Larrea tridentata
scientific name of creosote bush
Ginkgo
One of the oldest living fossils--or plant genera that lived during ancient times and still lives on earth today is the remarkable maidenhair tree
dioceious
Ginkgos are _____ with seperate sexes, some trees being female and others being male
dioecious
having unisexual reproductive units with male and female plants
monoecious
having unisexual reproductive units of both sexes appearing on the same plant; from Greek for "one household".
dioecious plants
holly, asparagus, dates, mulberry, ginkgo, persimimmons, currant bushes, juniper bushes, sago palm, spinach, and marijuana are all
monoecious
squash family (watermelon and cucumber),pines, and maize (corn), dawn redwoods,
pecans, oak and
maple trees are all
Silene stenophylla
The oldest successful regeneration of a living plant from ancient tissue. 32,000 year-old seeds of
date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
seed that was discovered during an archaeological excavation at King Herod's Palace on Mount Masada near the Dead Sea. Nicknamed "Methuselah" the palm that sprouted from this ancient seed has been Carbon-dated at about 2,000 years old
arctic lupine
worlds record for oldest germinated seed
honey fungus
Largest living thing. found in Malheur National Forest in Oregon. It's mycelia are some 2,400+ years old, covering 3.4 square miles.
giant sequoia
has the undisputed record for the world's most massive living thing. The largest tree, named General Sherman, is 275 feet tall with a massive trunk 36 feet in diameter and 103 feet in circumference at the base
African baobab (Adansonia digitata) the South American ombu (Phytolacca dioica) and the Indian banyan (Ficus bengalensis)
3 other large trees
Eucalyptus
has been called a tree with more usefulness to humans than any other tree on earth. Documented as the third-largest tree in the world, at 346 feet.
aspen clone
worlds heaviest living organism
coast redwood
worlds tallest tree
Wolffia
worlds smallest flowering plant
fruit
In botany, a ____ is the ripened ovary--together with seeds--of a flowering plant.
vegetable
An herbaceous (green and leaf like in appearance or texture) plant cultivated for an edible part, as roots, stems, leaves or flowers
jackfruit
Native to the Indo-Malaysian region, the ______ tree is grown throughout the tropics for its pulpy, edible fruit
Raffia Palm
of tropical Africa has huge pinnate leaves up to 80 feet long.
Malaysian corpse flower
The largest and most bizarre of all stinking flowers is the
stinking corpse lily or Rafflesia
worlds largest flower
giant bamboo and pacific giant kelp
2 fastest growing plants
castor bean plant
toxic plant most likley to be in your garden
lectines
The most insidious plant toxins affecting people are _____, extremely poisonous proteins including ricin from the seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis) and abrin from the seeds of rosary bean (Abrus precatorius).
rattlesnake venom
ricin is 6,000 times more poisonous than cyanide and 12,000 times more poisonous than
National Center for Biomedical Research and Training
help America prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from acts of domestic and international terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and high-consequence events through teaching, training, technical assistance, and research.
Oleander
the most enticing poison
angel trumpet
turn a person into a zombie
western water hemlock
most violently toxic plant in North America
white snakeroot
the plant that killed a presidents mother
monkshood
the best plant to murder a dinner guest
strychnine tree
queen cleopatras servants commited suicide with this
poppies
account for 60% of the economy of Afghanistan. They provide ~$100 million each year to the Taliban.
A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance
a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior
psychological addiction
a user feels compelled to use a drug despite negative physical or societal consequence
physical dependence
user must use a drug to avoid medically harmful withdrawal
tolerance
the need for ever-increasing amounts of the drug to produce the same effect
stimulants
excite and enhance mental alertness and physical activity and reduce fatigue and suppress hunger. Examples include cocaine and caffeine.
caffeine
is a alkaloid that acts as a psychoactive stimulant and diuretic (drug that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion) in humans
ephedrine
commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant and to treat hypotension associated with regional anesthesia.
quinine
is one of 31 alkaloids with related structures, and the principal antimalarial compound, in the plant.
Atropine
comes from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) and is used to dilate the pupils of the eye. Atropine is also a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and is used as a treatment for nerve gas poisoning.
scopolamine
another member of this class is used as a treatment for motion sickness
cocaine
is closely related in structure, is also a CNS stimulant, and has been used as a topical anesthetic in opthamology. It is also a drug of abuse.
ergot alkaloids
come from a fungus, Claviceps purpurea, which is a parasite on rye and wheat.
ipomoea tricolor
the seeds of contain ergoline alkaloids and have been used for centuries as a hallucinogen.
datura
have been described as a living dream: consciousness falls in and out, people who don't exist are conversed with, etc. The effects can last for days
the morphine alkaloids
derived from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, are powerful pain relievers and narcotics. The narcotic activity of P. somniferum was noted on Sumerian tablets in 3500 B.C., making it one of the oldest drugs known
opium
is a narcotic formed from the latex released by lacerating (or "scoring") the immature seed pods of opium poppies
morphine, heroin, codeine
It contains up to 16% _____, an opiate alkaloid, which is most frequently processed chemically to produce ____. The latex also includes _____.
Morphine
was widely used for pain relief beginning in the 1830's, but was also recognized as being addictive.
afghanistan/consumer
main producer/consumer of opium
heroin
processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant
strychnine
poison that street heroin is sometimes cut with
strychnine
colorless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as rodents. Strychnine causes muscular convulsions and eventually death through asphyxia or sheer exhaustion
short term effects of heroin
"Rush"
Depressed respiration
Clouded mental functioning
Nausea and vomiting
Suppression of pain
Spontaneous abortion
long term heroin effects
Addiction
Infectious diseases, for example,
HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C
Collapsed veins
Bacterial infections
Abscesses
Infection of heart lining and valves
Arthritis and other rheumatologic problems
cocaine
is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain.
Erythroxylum coca
Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the ______ ___ bush
crack
is the street name given to the freebase form of cocaine that has been processed from the powdered cocaine hydrochloride form to a smokable substance
short term coke effects
Increased energy
Decreased appetite
Mental alertness
Increased heart rate and blood pressure
Constricted blood vessels
Increased temperature
Dilated pupils
long term coke effects
Addiction
Irritability and mood disturbances
Restlessness
Paranoia
Auditory hallucinations
peyote cactus
well known for its psychoactive alkaloids and among these mescaline in particular. has a history of ritual religious and medicinal use among certain indigenous American tribes going back thousands of years.
psylocybe/copelandia cyanescens
famous mushrooms from mexico/hawaii
Psilocybin mushrooms
are fungi that contain the psychodelic (alter the thought processes of the brain and perception of the mind) substances psilocybin and psilocin