Approximately__% of world grape production is used for wine and juice. __% as fresh fruit and __% as dried fruit.
Top grape producer
top state grape prodeucer
top wine producer
someone who makes wooden barrels casks and other similar wooden objects
a wine merchant or producer
a person in a resturant who specializes in wine
person who makes wine
wine scientist or wine chemist
Person in the science of grape vines themselves
most grapes come from this variety
north american table and grape juice grape vines, sometimes used for wines
wild vine of N America, sometimes used for wine and jam
the muscadines. used for jams and wine
Frost grape. native to the mideast to the coast up to new york
Most important Asian species
When one of these varieties is used as the main grape, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, or Merlot for example, the result is a
a blend of several grape varieties
are planted in substantial numbers in cool climate viticultural areas
a root louse. american species of grapes have this that makes them resistant to grafting
most of the worlds vineyards are planted with these europeon vines
very susceptiple to the aphid insect
by vinification methods
Wine Classification by__. these include classifications such as sparkling, still, fortified, rose, and blush
by grape variety
Wine Classification by__. Such as cabernet, sauvignon, pint noir
Wine classification by__. their primary impression on the drinkers palate
Wines may be classified by the year in which the grapes are harvested
classification: premium, jug, ect
conventions that dictate where the grapes were grown and which grapes went into the wine and how theyre vinified
word that comes from the greek words for wine and study, is the term to describe the science of winemaking
ethanol + carbon dioxide
glucose + yeast =
added to a solution containing glucose, converts the simple sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide
as many as 4000 varieties have been develpoed and are used in the production of wines
table wines, sparkling, and fortified
3 main categories of wine:
upon arriving at the winery, grapes are treated with 50-75 ppm of free sulfur dioxide. this process is called
plays two important roles. Firstly, it is an anti-microbial agent, and as such is used to help curtail the growth of undesirable fault producing yeasts and bacteria.
the species of yeast that is used to ferment grape juice into wine is
the most problematic bacteria that can turn wine into vinger overnight
oak fermentred wine may go through secondary fermentation called
the time that a wine is aged is equal to the time that elapses between fermentation and drinking
Seperation, chilling, and bottling
after fermentation, the wine is drawn off to seperate it from dead yeast and other sediments that have precipitated from the juice
grapes are separated from the stems and gently crushed into a pulpy material called
the group of chemicals that naturally exist in the skin and seeds of the grapes
this wine is produced in the same way as white wines until fermentation is complete
barley water hops and yeast
4 ingredients of beer
top beer producer
beer per capita consumption
scientific name for barley
top barley producer
Half of the world's barley production is used as an animal feed. A large part of the remainder used for ____ and is a key ingredient in beer and whisky.
two-row and six-row
two forms of cultivated barley
oldest type of barley, higher protien
scientific name for hops
the first documented instance of hop cultivation was in ___ in present day germany
first mention of use of hops was in
cultivation of hops began in present day U.S. in
Adding hops after the wort has cooled and the beer has fermented is known as
hops boiled with beer
hop flavor or aroma
hops added to beer later impart som degree of
top hops producer
process by which barley is steeped in water, germinated, then kilned to convert insoluble starch to soluble substances and sugar
Brewers' term for milled grains, or the combination of milled grains to be used in a particular brew
to release malt sugars by soaking the grains in water. or the resultant mixture
a tank where grist is soaked in water and heated in order to convert starch to sugar and extract the sugars from the grist
the solution of grain sugars strained from the mash tun
a micro organism of the fungus family. Genus Saccharomyces
top fermenting yeast
one of the two types of yeast used in brewing. works better at warmer temps,and are able to tolerate higher alch concentrations
also know as ale yeast, scientific name for top fermenting yeast.
bottom fermenting yeastccharomyces uvarum
One of the two types of yeast used in brewing. Bottom-fermenting yeast works well at low temperatures and ferments more sugars leaving a crisp, clean taste and then settles to the bottom of the tank. Also referred to as "lager yeast".
scientific name for bottom fermenting yeast
heating the beer to 140-174 degrees to stabilize it microbiologically
to spray grist with hot water in order to remove soluble sugars(maltose) This takes place at the end of the mash
A water soluble, fermentable sugar contained in malt
fermentation of wort takes about how many days?
Pacific Yew (scientific name)
this anti cancer drug is made from taxol contained in its bark
most widley prescribed antidiabetic drug in the world
the swedish word "druug" means
active ingrediant in bark once prescribed by Hippocrates. lead to the develoment of asprin
doctrine of signatures
an ancient european philosophy that held that plants bearing parts that resembled human body parts or animal or other parts had useful regasrd to those things
Rauwolfia serpentina (snanke root)
source of the drug reserpine used in the treatment of hypertension
scientific name for Hepatica
A system for treating disease based on the administration of minute doses of a drug that in massive amounts produces symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the disease itself.
marsh labrador tea
a homeopathic remedy ___ The dilution shows no molecules of the original herb
Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from
arnica montana D6 has a dilution thats one part in___.
modern homeopathic drugs
Zicam and Nasal Ease are examples of
a group of medicines extracted from foxglove plants
The use of this extract containing digitoxin for the treatment of heart conditions was first described in 1785, which is considered the beginning of modern therapeutics. It is used to increase cardiac contractility and to control the heart rate.
scientific name for periwinkle
one of the most potent antileukemic drugs in use today, was isolated in a search for diabetes treatments from vinca rosea
leprosy or Hansens disease is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria
British surgeon in India named Mouat, who in 1854 used this substance for leprosy treatment
scientific name for chaulmoogra oil
Asthma, hay fever, and the common cold
Ephedra has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 5,000 years for the treatment of (3)
refers to the plant Ephedra sinica. E. sinica, known in Chinese as ma huang
commonly used as a stimulant appetite suppressant concentration aid decongestant and to treat hypotension associated with anesthesia
aspirin and caffeine
Ephedra has also been used for weight loss, sometimes in a combination with___ and ____.
Ephedra may also be used as a precursor in the illicit manufacture of
Susafed and Contact
Methamphetamine is easily "cooked up" in home laboratories using pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs such as
complementary and alternative medicine
term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard medical care.
acupuncture, chiropratic and herbal medicines
3 Examples of CAM therapies
herbal medicine products are ____ ____ that people take to improve their health
just because an herbal supplement is labeled "_____" does not mean it is safe or without any harmful effects. For example, the herbs kava and comfrey have been linked to serious liver damage.
that they do not have to meet the same standards as drugs and over-the-counter medications for proof of safety, effectiveness
In the United States, herbal and other dietary supplements are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as foods. This means
replicated, randomized, double-blind tests
3 tests that receive attention in mainstream medical publications are often questioned on methodological grounds or interpretation
peer-reviewed medical journals
these journals recieve more consideration than those published in specialized herbal journals
substance or procedure a patient accepts as medicine or therapy, but which has no objectively verifiable therapeutic activity. Any therapeutic effect is thought to be based on the power of suggestion.
repeated, large scale, randomized, and double blind tests
The scientific standard for pharmaceutical testing is
refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes
plant made pharmaceuticals (PMPs)
also refered to as biopharming, is a sub-sector of the biotechnology industry that involves the process of genetically engineering plants so that they can produce certain types of therapeutically important proteins and associate molecules such as peptides and secondary metabolites.
plant molecular farming
The third wave of agricultural biotechnology that refers to the cultivation of plants for industrially, medically, or scientifically useful biomolecules, rather than for traditional uses of food, feed, or fiber
the growing of molecules with pharmaceutical applications in selected crops.
a library has burned down
each time a rainforest medicine man dies, it is as if
name for Para rubber tree
Mesoamerican people perfected rubber more than ___ years ago
important ritual game of the mayans
The Para rubber tree
is of major economic importance because its sap-like extract (known as latex) can be collected and is the primary source of natural rubber
the amazon rainforest
the para rubber tree initially grew only in
Country that provided the world with the rubber tree
This is essentially a cloning technique which ensures that genetically identical trees can be produced in unlimited numbers.
the estates and the smallholdings
two types of rubber plantations in most producing countries
_____tend to produce solid rubber while ______ are essentially large-scale farms, with professional management. Most latex comes from professionally managed estates.
True/False. Latex is made from sap
runs deeper inside the tree, beneath the cambium
runs in the ducts which are immediately outside the cambium
Natural rubber is often_____, a process by which rubber is heated and sulfur, peroxide or bisphenol are added to improve resilence and elasticity and to prevent it from degrading.
The successful development of vulcanization is most closely associated with
often used as an additive to rubber to improve the strength, especially in tires
a treatment of rubber to give it certain qualities. ex) strength, elasticity, and resistance to solvents, and to render it impervious to moderate hot and cold temps.
main source of natural rubber
largest rubber producder
spends the most on natural rubber imports
spends most on synthetic and reclaimed rubber imports
figs(Ficus elastica), Castilla elastica (panama rubber tree), euphorbias, and the common dandelion
other plants containing latex
________ rubber can be made from Guayule
Gutta percha (palaquium gutta)
a genus of tropical trees native to southeast asia and northern australia. This material is an inelastic natural latex produced from the sap of these trees
liberia and nigeria
2 african rubber producing countries
worlds most expensive orchid
grown in kinabalu national park in sabah, malaysia in northern borneo
japanese art form using mini trees grown in containers
perhaps the most expensive food item in the world, costing over 2000 per pound
processed salted roe of certain species of fish, most notably the sturgeon and the salmon
caviar not worth its weight in gold
choupiquet (Amia calva)
the roe used to make cajun caviar is from the___. common market name is bowfin
sturgeon, paddlefish, and bowfin
only 3 true caviar producing species found in the USA
the most expensive spice in the world. it is the three stigmas and style of the crocus flower
are from the underground ascomycetes family and are reputed for their high prices
black perigord truffles
take 6 years to grow and cost 50/ounce
the white truffle of alba, italy
truffle worth its weight in gold
true kobe beef
raised from the black Tajima-ushi breed of Wagyu cattle - is produced only in Hyōgo Prefecture in Japan. It is bred according to secret, and strict traditions. It is fed beer and grain and produces meat that is tender and fatty. The beef can cost up to $300 per pound.
Cave Swifts Nests
considered a delicacy in China and are one of the most expensive animal products consumed by humans.
the Japanese word for pufferfish and is also a Japanese dish prepared from the meat of pufferfish
second to caviar, one of the finest western foods available. It is the liver of ducks or geese
force-feeding of the animal of grain via a tube down the throat.
Worlds rarest plant is a cycad famous for being extinct in nature, and for the fact that there is no known female specimen on Earth. Only one clump of male plants has ever been found
The common landscape plant the Sago Palm is actually a
term used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble. The term originally came from the period in the history of the Netherlands during which demand for tulip bulbs reached such a peak that enormous prices were charged for a single bulb
semper augustus (6000 florins)
This tulip is famous for being the most expensive tulip sold during the tulipomania in the Netherlands in the 17th century.
bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
The worlds oldest living thing. living for nearly 5,000 years high in the White Mountains of California and the Snake Range of eastern Nevada
the worlds oldest recorded tree is a 9.550 year old _____ in Sweden
creosote bush or aspen
Some of the oldest single living organisms known are bristlecone pines, though some plants such as ______ ___ or ____ form clonal colonies that may be many times older
scientific name of creosote bush
One of the oldest living fossils--or plant genera that lived during ancient times and still lives on earth today is the remarkable maidenhair tree
Ginkgos are _____ with seperate sexes, some trees being female and others being male
having unisexual reproductive units with male and female plants
having unisexual reproductive units of both sexes appearing on the same plant; from Greek for "one household".
holly, asparagus, dates, mulberry, ginkgo, persimimmons, currant bushes, juniper bushes, sago palm, spinach, and marijuana are all
squash family (watermelon and cucumber),pines, and maize (corn), dawn redwoods, pecans, oak and maple trees are all
The oldest successful regeneration of a living plant from ancient tissue. 32,000 year-old seeds of
date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
seed that was discovered during an archaeological excavation at King Herod's Palace on Mount Masada near the Dead Sea. Nicknamed "Methuselah" the palm that sprouted from this ancient seed has been Carbon-dated at about 2,000 years old
worlds record for oldest germinated seed
Largest living thing. found in Malheur National Forest in Oregon. It's mycelia are some 2,400+ years old, covering 3.4 square miles.
has the undisputed record for the world's most massive living thing. The largest tree, named General Sherman, is 275 feet tall with a massive trunk 36 feet in diameter and 103 feet in circumference at the base
African baobab (Adansonia digitata) the South American ombu (Phytolacca dioica) and the Indian banyan (Ficus bengalensis)
3 other large trees
has been called a tree with more usefulness to humans than any other tree on earth. Documented as the third-largest tree in the world, at 346 feet.
worlds heaviest living organism
worlds tallest tree
worlds smallest flowering plant
In botany, a ____ is the ripened ovary--together with seeds--of a flowering plant.
An herbaceous (green and leaf like in appearance or texture) plant cultivated for an edible part, as roots, stems, leaves or flowers
Native to the Indo-Malaysian region, the ______ tree is grown throughout the tropics for its pulpy, edible fruit
of tropical Africa has huge pinnate leaves up to 80 feet long.
Malaysian corpse flower
The largest and most bizarre of all stinking flowers is the
stinking corpse lily or Rafflesia
worlds largest flower
giant bamboo and pacific giant kelp
2 fastest growing plants
castor bean plant
toxic plant most likley to be in your garden
The most insidious plant toxins affecting people are _____, extremely poisonous proteins including ricin from the seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis) and abrin from the seeds of rosary bean (Abrus precatorius).
ricin is 6,000 times more poisonous than cyanide and 12,000 times more poisonous than
National Center for Biomedical Research and Training
help America prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from acts of domestic and international terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and high-consequence events through teaching, training, technical assistance, and research.
the most enticing poison
turn a person into a zombie
western water hemlock
most violently toxic plant in North America
the plant that killed a presidents mother
the best plant to murder a dinner guest
queen cleopatras servants commited suicide with this
account for 60% of the economy of Afghanistan. They provide ~$100 million each year to the Taliban.
A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance
a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior
a user feels compelled to use a drug despite negative physical or societal consequence
user must use a drug to avoid medically harmful withdrawal
the need for ever-increasing amounts of the drug to produce the same effect
excite and enhance mental alertness and physical activity and reduce fatigue and suppress hunger. Examples include cocaine and caffeine.
is a alkaloid that acts as a psychoactive stimulant and diuretic (drug that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion) in humans
commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant and to treat hypotension associated with regional anesthesia.
is one of 31 alkaloids with related structures, and the principal antimalarial compound, in the plant.
comes from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) and is used to dilate the pupils of the eye. Atropine is also a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and is used as a treatment for nerve gas poisoning.
another member of this class is used as a treatment for motion sickness
is closely related in structure, is also a CNS stimulant, and has been used as a topical anesthetic in opthamology. It is also a drug of abuse.
come from a fungus, Claviceps purpurea, which is a parasite on rye and wheat.
the seeds of contain ergoline alkaloids and have been used for centuries as a hallucinogen.
have been described as a living dream: consciousness falls in and out, people who don't exist are conversed with, etc. The effects can last for days
the morphine alkaloids
derived from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, are powerful pain relievers and narcotics. The narcotic activity of P. somniferum was noted on Sumerian tablets in 3500 B.C., making it one of the oldest drugs known
is a narcotic formed from the latex released by lacerating (or "scoring") the immature seed pods of opium poppies
morphine, heroin, codeine
It contains up to 16% _____, an opiate alkaloid, which is most frequently processed chemically to produce ____. The latex also includes _____.
was widely used for pain relief beginning in the 1830's, but was also recognized as being addictive.
main producer/consumer of opium
processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant
poison that street heroin is sometimes cut with
colorless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as rodents. Strychnine causes muscular convulsions and eventually death through asphyxia or sheer exhaustion
short term effects of heroin
"Rush" Depressed respiration Clouded mental functioning Nausea and vomiting Suppression of pain Spontaneous abortion
long term heroin effects
Addiction Infectious diseases, for example, HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C Collapsed veins Bacterial infections Abscesses Infection of heart lining and valves Arthritis and other rheumatologic problems
is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain.
Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the ______ ___ bush
is the street name given to the freebase form of cocaine that has been processed from the powdered cocaine hydrochloride form to a smokable substance
short term coke effects
Increased energy Decreased appetite Mental alertness Increased heart rate and blood pressure Constricted blood vessels Increased temperature Dilated pupils
long term coke effects
Addiction Irritability and mood disturbances Restlessness Paranoia Auditory hallucinations
well known for its psychoactive alkaloids and among these mescaline in particular. has a history of ritual religious and medicinal use among certain indigenous American tribes going back thousands of years.
famous mushrooms from mexico/hawaii
are fungi that contain the psychodelic (alter the thought processes of the brain and perception of the mind) substances psilocybin and psilocin