APES CH 15 Review
Terms in this set (75)
Which is NOT a criteria air pollutant?
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
A secondary pollutant
Is transformed by sunlight or water
Which is a source of sulfur dioxide found in nature?
Which size of particulate matter causes the greatest health concern?
PM2.5 (the smaller the size, the worse it is)
Is produced by incomplete combustion
High levels of photochemical smog are due to
I. nitrogen dioxide
II. sulfur dioxide
I and III only (NO2 and VOCs)
Recent increases in acid deposition in the western United States are due to
Increased emissions in China (reach western US by prevailing westerlies across the Pacific Ocean)
Trap high concentrations of pollution at ground level (inversion layer traps and accumulates emissions increasing temps)
Acid deposition forms as a result of
Nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide
The effects of acid deposition include
Decreased aquatic biodiversity
Which method is used to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions?
installation of catalytic converters
Which is NOT used to prevent the emissions of particulate matter?
Which pollution control method was proposed by an amendment to the Clean Air Act?
a market for sulfur emissions
If carbon monoxide emissions decreased from 145 million tons annually to 80 millions tons annually, by what percentage have emissions been reduced?
The formation of ozone begins when an O2 molecule is split by
How many ozone atoms can a single chlorine atom break down?
Which is NOT a result of the reduction in stratospheric ozone?
increased skin cancer
Through international cooperation, the concentration of chlorine in the atmosphere
has stabilized at 5ppb
When is the Antarctic ozone hole largest?
What percentage of worldwide deaths due to indoor air pollution occurs in developing nations?
Which outdoor air pollutant is also a significant indoor air pollutant?
carbon monoxide (CO)
The primary source of radon is
rocks and soils
Sick building syndrome
occurs most often in wet tropical areas
is used for insulation
the frequency and severity of smog depends on all of the following EXCEPT
gases and particles emitted into the air by various sources are known as
the Clean Air Act regulates all of the following EXCEPT
indoor air quality
which of the following is considered a natural source of air pollution?
acid rain can cause all of the following EXCEPT
decreased air quality
which of the following is a colorless gas that is helpful when in the stratosphere but harmful when produced in the troposhere?
what occurs when a warm layer of air traps a layer of cool polluted air?
which of the following is the LEAST feasible solution to controlling emissions?
limit international trade of goods
Which of the following BEST describes radon?
a colorless, odorless gas that can attach to dust particles and can cause certain cancers
which of the following mix with sunlight to produce photochemical smog?
nitrogen oxides and VOCs
poor air quality can threaten the livelihood of region by all of the following EXCEPT
increased crop production
which location is best associated with an epidemic of mercury poisoning?
which source produces most lead as an air pollutant?
which source is the largest contributor to carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in the US?
which of the following is not associated with tropospheric ozone exposure?
damage to the respiratory system can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT
which of the following is the best way to improve the air quality in a city?
improve public transportation
all of the following is true about VOCs EXCEPT
there are no known natural sources of VOCs
what term best describes material that can be considered harmful to human health or the environment, if not properly disposed?
in which layer of the atmosphere is the ozone layer located?
which of the following is the major cause for concern over ozone layer depletion?
radiation impacting the biosphere
which is true of stratospheric ozone?
it absorbs ultraviolet radiation
the ozone layer is formed from compounds of which element?
which statement is true about the ozone layer and UV radiation
ozone is least efficient at absorbing UVA radiation
the hole in the ozone layer can be attributed to which of the following?
increased concentrations of stable CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)
which of the following was developed in order to protect the ozone layer from further depletion?
Predict what the future ozone minimums will be over the next 50 years
the minimums will continue to rise slowly and steadily over time
which type of radiation is partially and/or fully absorbed by stratospheric ozone (greater than 70% absorbed)?
UVB and UVC
all of the following are sources of CFCs EXCEPT
all of the following are known to destroy the ozone layer EXCEPT
which of the following are true of CFCs?
I)the EPA created a worldwide ban of the use of CFCs in aerosol cans in the late 1970s
II) CFCs can be sued as coolants and propellants in aerosols, refrigerators and air conditioners
III)CFCs can occur naturally in the troposphere but do not occur naturally in the stratosphere
IV) CFCs are nonflammable nontoxic molecules that contains chlorine and fluorine atoms
which of the following was the precursor to the Montreal Protocol?
a pungent reddish-brown gas often associated with photochemical smog
a corrosive gas from burning coal often associated with industrial smog
a dangerous indoor air pollutant
emitted from both diesel and burning wood
all of the following are examples of primary air pollutant except
the greatest emission of sulfur dioxide comes from
the least amount of nitrogen oxide emissions comes from
the accumulation of tropospheric ozone at night depends mainly upon the atmospheric concentration of
under natural conditions the pH of rainfall is closest to
the effects of acid deposition include all of the following except
increased numbers of salamanders in ponds and streams
the World Health Organization estimates that over half of the deaths worldwide due to indoor air pollution occur among
children less than 5 years old
two major factors involved in the conversion of primary pollutants into secondary pollutants are
sunlight and water
the pollutant least likely to be emitted from a smokestack would be
how might the increased use of insulation in a home affect air pollution?
the EPA identifies all of the following as reasons for sick building syndrome EXCEPT
high levels of radon in the basement
which statement regarding the decreased levels of stratospheric ozone is correct?
which is most strongly absorbed by ozone in the stratosphere?
UV-B and UV-C
natural sources of air pollution include all of the following except
a thermal inversion
occurs when a warm layer overlies a cooler layer
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