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Bio Chapter 8 and 9
Terms in this set (56)
The ability to do work.
Organisms, such as plants, that can make their own food.
can NOT use the sun's energy directly to make their own food.
they get energy from the food they eat
Eat both plants and animals
Feed off of dead organisms
Meat eaters (animals)
Energy carrying molecule
Contains 3 phosphate groups
ADP (Adenosine diphosphate)
Similiar structure to ATP but with only 2 phosphate groups
When ATP releases a P group it also releases:
ATP can be generated from ADP as needed
Process by which green plants use the energy of sunlight to convert H20 and CO2 into oxygen and glucose.
Light energy is converted to _______ energy stores in food.
Plants produce oxygen
Light was necessary for plants to make oxygen.
Von Helmont, Priestly, and Ingenhausz discovered:
Reactants and products of photosythesis
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert:
Water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and glucose.
Photosynthesis equation (plants can use the sugar to produce starches):
6CO2 + 6H2O ---> (Energy/chlorophyll) C6 H12 O6 + 6 O2
Light and chlorophyll (a green pigment molecule in chloroplasts)
Long waves to short waves. What are their colors?
Green is not absorbed it is:
Photosynthesis occurs in:
Saclike membranes in chloroplasts
Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called:
Chlorophyll that absorbs light energy
Light dependent reactions:
In thylakoid (grana)
Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy and converts it to chemical energy (ATP and NADPH)
Produces O2 (which comes from H2O)
Which is released as a waste product
Occurs in thylakoid membranes (grana)
Light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle):
In stroma (region outside thylakoid)
Does NOT use light
Energy carriers ATP and NADPH don't last long
A compound that can accept a pair of high-energy e- and transfer them (along with most of their energy) to another molecule. (NADP)
The sun's energy is then trapped in chemical form:
Calvin cycle uses their energy to produce high energy storage molecules:
6 CO2 are converted to high energy 6C-sugar (glucose)
Energy from the light-dependent reaction was carried by ATP and NADPH and is now stored in the glucose
Calvin Cycle takes place in the:
More light =
Higher rate of photosynthesis until a maximum rate is reached
The amount of energy needed to raise 1g of water to 1 degree C.
1000 calories (kilacalorie)
The process of cells releasing energy begins with:
Process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Cellular Respiration involves:
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and electron transport chain
Cellular Respiration equation:
Oxygen + Glucose ---> Carbon dioxide + water + Energy
The 3 main stages of cellular respiration each capture some of the chemical energy in food and use it to produce ATP.
1st set of reactions in cellular respiration
Takes place in the cytoplasm
It is the process in which the glucose molecule (6C) is broken into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (each 3C)
Does NOT require oxygen
Glycolysis is an energy releasing process BUT needs to use ____ ATP molecules as activation energy.
Glycolysis releases _______ ATP molecules so there is an overall net gain of _____ ATP molecules
4 and 2
If oxygen is NOT present glycolysis is followed by fermentation.
Process used by yeast
Produces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
Makes dough rise when added to bread
Produces wine, liquors, and beer
Lactic Acid fermentation:
Produces lactic acid and occurs in muscle cells that run out of oxygen
Build up of lactic acid causes painful, burning sensation (sore muscles)
Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport:
Takes places in mitochondria
To finish breaking down molecules using oxygen to release energy
The Krebs Cycle:
If oxygen is present, pyruvic acid molecules (from glycolysis) go to the 2nd stage of cellular respiration
Pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 in a series of energy releasing reactions.
CO2 is released as a:
During each cycle:
An ATP molecule is made
Energy carrier molecules pass energy in the form of excited e- on to the electron transport chain
Photosynthesis deposits energy while cellular respiration_______ energy
Photosynthesis puts O2 into the atmosphere while cellular respiration_________
Takes it out
Cellular Respiration is performed by all eukaryotes (plants and animals) and some prokaryotes while Photosynthesis is only performed by _______
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