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Chapter 16 - 1&2 - People

Pope Leo X
during his papacy, - Rome became great center of art and learning
- exemplified emerging humanism - read Cicero and Vergil - deep feeling for beauty of this world - critical of medieval schoolmen because - rationalism -
Benvenuto Cellini
16th century Italian who was very gifted and talented sculptor and goldsmith
Niccolo Machiavelli
Diplomat who wrote a book that realistically analyzed politics in Renaissance Italy (The Prince). Stated rulers should be ready to use force and deceit for power
Baldassare Castiglione
wrote popular manual in which he gave advice to men and women on Renaissance ideal of good behavior
Lorenzo Valla
represented Classical scholarship at its best - criticized Cicero, Thomas Aquinas, Vulgate of St. Jerome
Giovanni Boccaccio
mirrored the spirit of the Renaissance - famous for poetry and prose - Story of ten young people who flee Florence to escape Black Death ("Decameron") - most famous work
Cosimo de Medici
Ruler of Florence - placed heavier tax responsibility on wealthier citizens, built sewers, and had streets paved
Lorenzo de Medici
"The Magnificent" - exiled people who disagreed with him - done to maintain stability - patron of artists, philosophers, writers - economy expanded
Dominican friar and virtual dictator of Florence - Church declared him a heretic and was burned at stake
studied ancient Roman statues and buildings - measured many ruins - believed beauty of building based upon mathematical relationship of various dimensions - designed dome of cathedral (Sante Maria Del Fiore) in Florence
greatest sculptor of early Renaissance - most important work - "David" (first free standing nude sculpture) - bronze -
Lorenzo Ghiberti
Italian sculptor - developed techniques for three-dimensional sculpture by placing the figures closest to viewer in high relief, and those in the background in low relief
great series of fresco(es) (paintings on wet plaster) depicting life of Saint Francis of Assissi -
1334 - appointed chief architect of Florence - placed in charge of civic and military construction
preferred sculpture to painting - "thought in stone" - lived only for art - took no pleasure in money or comfort - "Pieta"
"Messy Tom" - real name Tomasso Guidi- first artist to paint human figures in nude - modeled figures using light and dark technique
burned many paintings that had "pagan" themes - later works are devoted to religious subjects - influenced by Neo-Platonism
Leonardo da Vinci
Artist that left behind many notes - designed buildings, canals, and military devices and was an artist of great talent
Pope Julius II
pope who oversaw the final construction of St. Peter's Basilica - hired Michelangelo
leading painter of Renaissance - most noted for tranquil, sweet faced madonnas
Johannes Gutenberg
printed a complete edition of the Bible using movable metal type
Pierre Ronsard
greatest poet of French Renaissance - inspired by Petrarch, wrote sonnets on humanist themes of love, youth, and immorality
Michael de Montaigne
may have based his informal and direct style on Italian literary models
Francois Rabelais
France's most popular Renaissance author, developed personal essay
Desiderius Erasmus
"Prince of the Humanists" - writings challenged certain aspects of Church dogma
Jan van Eyck
developed technique of painting with oils
Peter Brueghel
combined Italian technique with the artistic traditions of their homelands
Albrecht Durer
artist that combined Italian technique with the artistic traditions of their homelands; painted realistic portraits, religious themes, landscapes, and scenes of daily life
Thomas More
statesman and friend of Erasmus, wrote a book that criticized the society of his day by comparing it with an ideal society - executed for refusal to recognize king as head of the Church of England
most popular Renaissance playwright - English - most quoted author of all time