164 terms

Chapter 6

Anatomy & physiology
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

ABDUCTORS
Muscle that separate the fingers.
ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
ADDUCTORS
Muscles at the base of each finger that draw the fingers together.
ANABOLISM
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.
ANATOMY
Study of human body structure that can be seen with the naked eye, and what they are made up of; the science of the structure of organisms, or of thier parts.
ARTERIES
Thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries.
ATRIUM
The upper thin walled chambers of the heart.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
The part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart.
AXON
The extension of a neuron by which impulses are sent away from the nerve cell.
BELLY (MUSCLE)
Middle part of a muscle
BICEP
Muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm.
BLOOD
Fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries).
BLOOD VASCULAR SYSTEM
Group of structures (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries) that distribute blood throughout the body.
BODY SYSTEMS
Groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions. The human body is composed of 10 major systems.
BRAIN
Part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles, gland activity, and the power to think and feel emotions.
CAPILLARIES
Thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins.
CARDIAC MUSCLE
The involuntary muscle that is the heart.
CARPUS
The wrist; flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments.
CATABOLISM
The phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones resulting in the release of energy to perform functions such as muscular movement or digestion.
CELL
Basic unit of all living things; minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life.
CELL MEMBRANE
Part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves.
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
System that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.
COMMON PERONEAL NERVE
A division of the sciatic nerve that extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where it divides into two branches.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilage, and tendons.
CYTOPLASM
All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell.
DEEP PERONEAL NERVE
A nerve that extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles, it supplies impulses to these muscles and also to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes.
DELTOID
Large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body.
DENDRITES
Tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell.
DIAPHRAGM
Muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The mouth, stomach, intestines, and salivary and gastric glands that change food into nutrients and wastes.
DIGIT
A finger or toe.
DIGITAL NERVE
Nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers and toes.
DORSAL
A nerve that extends up from the toes and foot, just under the skin, supplying impulses to toes and foot, as well as the muscles and skin of the leg, where it is called the superficial peroneal nerve or the musculo-cutaneous nerve.
ENDOCRINE (DUCTLESS) GLANDS
Ductless glands that release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Group of specialized glands that affects the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands.
EXCRETORY SYSTEM
Group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, intestines, and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter.
EXHALATION
The act of breathing outward, expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs.
ENDOCRINE (DUCT) GLANDS
Duct glands that produce a substance that travels through small tube-like ducts, such as the sudoriferous (sweat) glands and the sebaceous (oil) glands.
EXTENSORS
Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line.
EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS
Muscle that bends the foot up and extends the toes.
FEMUR
A heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee.
FIBULA
The smaller of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The fibula may be visualized as a "bump" on the little-toe side of the ankle.
FLEXORS
Extensor muscles of the wrist involved in flexing the wrist.
FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
GASTROCNEMIUS
Muscle that is attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down.
GLANDS
Specialized organs that remove certain constituents from the blood to convert them into new substances.
HEART
Muscular cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving withing the circulatory system.
HEMOGLOBIN
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen.
HISTOLOGY
Science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy.
HORMONES
Secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the blood stream or body fluid to another part of the body to stimulate a specific activity.
HUMERUS
Uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.
INHALATION
The breathing in of air.
INSERTION
Part of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skeleton.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
The skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and swear glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.
JOINT
Connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.
LATISSIMUS DORSI
Broad, flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm.
LIQUID TISSUE
Body tissue that carries food, waste products, and hormones (i.e., blood and lymph).
LUNGS
Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide.
LYMPH
Clear yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymph spaces (lymphathic) of the body; carries waste and impurities away from the cells.
LYMPH NODES
Special structures found inside the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph.
LYMPH VASCULAR SYSTEM
Body system that acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels, and lymph glands.
MEDIAN NERVE
Nerve that supplies the arm and hand.
METABOLISM
Chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activity
METACARPUS
Bones of the pal of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges.
METATARSAL
One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of five bones, which are long and slender, like the metacarpal bones of the hand, help make-up the foot. All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones.
MITOSIS
Cells dividing into two new cells (daughter cells); the usual process of cells reproduction of human tissues.
MOTOR NERVES
Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Body system that covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; contracts and moves various parts of the the body.
MUSCULAR TISSUE
Tissue that contracts and move various parts of the body.
MYOLOGY
Science of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles.
NERVES
Whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.
NERVE TISSUE
Tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions.
NERVOUS SYSTEM
Body system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently.
NEURON
Nerve cell; basic unit of the nervous system, consisting of cell body, nucleus, dendrites, and axon.
NEUROLOGY
Science of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system.
NON STRIATED MUSCLE
Also called involuntary or smooth muscle; muscle that functions automatically without conscious will.
NUCLEUS
Dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism.
ORGANS
Structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions.
ORIGIN
Part of the muscle that does not move; it is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle.
OS
Bone.
OSTEOLOGY
The study of anatomy, structure, and function of the bones.
PATELLA
Also called the accessory bone, forms the knee cap joint.
PECTORALIS MAJOR, PECTORALIS MINOR
Muscles of chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
System of nerves and ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system; it has both sensory and motor nerves.
PERONEUS BREVIS
Muscle that originates on the lower surface of the fibula. It bends the foot down and out.
PERONEUS LONGUS
Muscle that covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward.
PHLANGES
Bones of the fingers or toes (singular: phalanx).
PHYSIOLOGY
Study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures.
PLASMA
Fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secretions to the cells.
PLATELETS
Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots.
POPLITEAL ARTERY
Divides into two separate arteries known as the anterior tibial and the posterior tibial. The anterior tibial goes to the foot and becomes the dorsalis pedis which supplies the foot with blood.
PRONATORS
Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.
PROTOPLASM
Colorless jelly-like substance found inside cells in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present.
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
Blood circulation from heart to lungs to be purified.
RADIAL ARTERY
Artery that supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand.
RADIAL NERVE
Supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.
RADIUS
Smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb
RED BLOOD CELLS
Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
REFLEX
Automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of specific muscles as a response to impulses carried along a motor neuron to a muscle, causing a spontaneous reaction.
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring.
RESPIRATION
Act of breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lungs and within each cell.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Body system consisting of the lungs and air passages; enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide wastes.
SAPHENOUS NERVE
Supplies impulses to the skin of the inner side of the leg and foot.
SENSORY (AFFERENT) NERVES
Nerves that carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced.
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm.
SKELETAL SYSTEM
Physical foundation of the body, comprised of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immovable joints.
SOLEUS
Muscle that originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down.
SPINAL CORD
The portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column.
STRIATED MUSCLE
Also called voluntary or skeletal muscle; muscle that is consciously controlled.
SUPERFICIAL PERONEAL NERVE
A nerve that extends down the leg, just under the skin, supplying impulses to the muscles and the skin of the leg, as well as to the skin and toes on the top of the foot.
SUPINATOR
Muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward.
SURAL NERVE
Supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg.
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
Circulation of blood from the heart throughout the body and back again to the heart; also called general circulation.
TALUS
One of three bones that comprise the ankle joint. The other two bones are the tibia and fibula.
TARSAL
One of the three subdivisions of the foot comprised of seven bones (talus, calcaneous, navicular, three cuneiform bones,and the cuboid).
THORAX
The chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs.
TIBIA
The larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a "bump" on the big-toe-side of the ankle.
TIBIAL NERVE
A division of the sciatic nerve that passes behind the knee. It subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee, the muscles of the calf, the skin of the leg, and the sole, heel, and underside of the toes.
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
Muscle that covers the front of the shin. It bends the foot upward and inward.
TISSUE
Collection of similar cells that perform a particular function.
TRAPEZIUS
Muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm.
TRICEP
Large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm.
ULNA
Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.
ULNAR ARTERY
Artery that supplies blood to the muscle of the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.
ULNAR NERVE
Nerve that affects the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.
VALVES
Structures that temporarily close a passage, or permit blood flow in one direction only.
VEINS
Thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; veins contain cup-like valves to prevent backflow and carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart and lungs.
VENTRICLE
The lower thick-walled champers of the heart.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease-causing microorganisms.
Cell are made up of a colorless, jellylike substance called _________ in which food elements such as protein, fats carbohydrates, mineral salts and water are present.
Protoplasm
The principal parts of a cell are the ________.
Nucleus, cytoplasm & cell membrane
The center of the cell contains the ______, which plays an important role in the cell reproduction.
Nucleus
The protoplasm of a cell that surrounds the nucleus is the __________ .
Cytoplasm
The process by which cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells called daughter cells is known as ___________ .
Mitosis
Cells will continue to grow and thrive as long as they are favored with the proper temperature, they eliminate waste products and are favored with an adequate supply of ___________ .
Food, oxygen & water
The complex chemical process whereby body cells are nourished and supplied with energy needed to carry on their many activities is called ________ .
Metabolism
The process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones, during which the body stores water, food, & oxygen for the time when they are needed for cell growth and repair is called ________ .
Anabolism
The process of breaking down of larger substances or molecules into smaller ones is called ________ .
Catabolism
Tissue that carries food, wast products, and hormones through the body is known as _______ .
Liquid
Groups of cells of the same kind are called _________ .
Tissues
During ________ energy can be stored by special molecules and used for muscle contraction, secretion, or heat production.
Digestion
The protective covering on the body's surface, such as skin, mucous membranes, lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands is __________ tissue.
epithelial
Tissue that carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all body functions is known as ________
Nerve
Supports, protects, and binds together other tissue of the body _______
Connective tissue
Structures of the body that are designed to accomplish a specific function _________ .
Organs
Groups of organs that cooperate for a common purpose, namely the welfare of the entire body _________ .
Systems
Another name for integumentary system is __________ .
Skin
Another name for skeletal system _______ .
Bones
Another name for circulatory system ________ .
Blood supply
The stomach and intestines are called the ______ system.
Digestive
The study if the structure, functions and diseases of the muscles is called _______ .
Mylogy
The three parts of a muscle are ______ .
Orgin
insertion
belly
Another name for voluntary muscles that can be controlled by the will is _________ .
Striated
Muscular tissue can be stimulated by _______
Massage
Heat
chemicals
The large thick triangular-shaped muscle that covers the shoulder and lifts and turns the arm outward is _________ .
Deltoid
The muscles that produce the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm, lifts forearm, and flexes the elbow ________ .
Biceps
The muscle that turns the hand outward and the palm upward _______ .
Supinators
The muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and the fingers to form a straight line are _________ .
Extensors
The muscles located at the base of each digit that separate the fingers _________ .
Abductors
The muscles that involve bending the wrist are __________
flexors
The muscles that assist in swinging of the arms is called __________ .
Pectoralis