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AP Human Geography Chapter 2 Key Terms
James M. Rubenstein
Terms in this set (25)
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and aminals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
A complete enumeration of a population.
Crude birth rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude death rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
The scientific study of population characteristics.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
The amount of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant mortality rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. The average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Natural increase rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Total fertility rate
The aveerage number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero population growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase reate equals zero.