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86 terms

Lung cancer ards pum fib atelectasis

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Small cell aka
Oat cell
Squamous
Most common form of bronchogenic carcinoma
Mediastioscopy
Scope inserted thru incision in neck
Mediastiotomy
Incision in chest to see if cancer spread to lymph nodes
Chemotherapy
Is using anti cancer drugs to tx small cell
Five to six
Size Difficult to see on xray
Cytology
Microscopic exam of sputum
Procedures to obtain lung tissue
Bronchoscopy needle aspiration thoracentesis thoractomy
Lg cell carcinoma
Grow rapidly early metastatic doubling time 100 days
Peripheral central lungs
Lg cell carcinoma is found here
Quitting smoking
Reduces risk one third to obe half
Radon
Second leading cause of cancer
Small cell
Aggressive cancer ,grows rapidly,mestasazize early double time 30 days
Hilar region
Small cell is found here
Symptoms advanced cancer
Sob,chest pain,hemoptysie,wheeze hoarse,chronic cough wt loss fatigue pneumonia bronchitis
Adenocarcinoma
Moderate dowry rate,metastic tendency oblong 180 days
Peripheral and central region of lunf
Adenocarcinma is found here
Squamous
Has double time 100 days And invades tissue in epithelium
Resection
Remove part of lung
Pneumectomy
Removal of all lung
Photodynamic therapy
Uses chemical injected in blood stream and absorbed by cells
Most common tx for sm cell carcinoma
Surgery
Pulmonary fibrosis
Aka ham man rich pneumoconiasis
Unknown etiology of pulmonary fibrosis is called
Sarcoidosis
Causes of palm fibrosis
Asbestos,silicosis,berylliosis,black lung coal miners siderosis
Onehun fourty
Types of pulmonary fibrosis
Pneumoconiosis
Pulmonary fibrosis caused by inhaling inorganic dust and particulate matter
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Is intertitial inflammation wo granuloma formation
Scleroderma
Is fibrosis that effects esophagus
Misc interstitial lung disease types
Good pastries,alveolar protein Lydia,chronic eosinophilia pneumonia
Signs of fibrosis
Cough,dyspnea,ground glass,irregular opaciies
Used to diagnose fibrosis
Xray,ct,MRI,pft,bronchi alveolar lavage,lung biopsy
Pulmonary fibrosis can be
Obstructive or restroctive
Tx to treat palm fibrosis
Corticosteroids,bronchodilator,antibiotic,diuretic,o2
Obstructive atelectasis
Obstructs gas flow between trachea and alveoli
Non obstructive atelectadis
Is from surgery pun thorax pl effusion paralysis ards fibrosis
Xray atelectasis
Fissure lines,shift elevated diaphragm,opacities platelike denities
Tx or telectasis
Antibiotic withdraw air or fluid is,u2,mech vent hyperinflation cpt
Two types non cell carcinoma
Squamous adenocarcinoma kg cell
Causes of obstructive atelectasis
Foreign body tumor mucus plug
Two types of cancer
Non cell small cell
Ards
A form od response failure from pulmonary injury of various xauses
Ards aka
Pump lung shock lung wet lung
Causes of ards
Pneumonia,airation narcotic od,near drowning,fat embolism,shock,fluid overload,sepsis,trauma thorax,smoke inhale,inhale tpxins,oxygen toxicity,airway burn,mech ventHemorrhagic pancreas
24-48 hrs
Ards will develop ..l.after initial illness or injury
Respirations with ards
Crackles and bronchial sounds Dyspnea,insp intercostl and suprasternal reyractions
Pawp measured with swan gantz
This is low in ards pt less than 18 mmhg
Common secondary infection with ards
Klebsiela pseudomonas staph
Ards
Usually intubation and mechanical vent,cpap,peep
If appropriate timely tx
Ards has survival rate of 60%
PTA with prolonged vent support of fio2. More than 50
Are likely to develop fibrosis
Benign
Are encapsulated Nd grow slowly
Drugs that may cause interstitial fibrosis
Anticancer
Chest assessment of ild
Pleural friction rub increased vocal fremitus
Pleural effusion honeycombing cavity formation ,granulomas,interstitial thickening
Malignant
Cause necrosis and invade tissue
With bronchogenic carcinima
There can be airway obstruction destruction of airways and alveoli and atelectasis
Brachytherapy
During a bronchoscopy if tumor found in rt man bronchus best way to manage is
Palliative therapy
Is to make pt comfortable
Mediastinal cancer
Affects swallowing and hoarseness weakness bone pain seizure and wt loss
Abnormalities in lungs with ards
Abnormal surfactant,interstitial edema
Ards anaomic alterations are similar to someone with
Hyaline membrane disease
Vent strategy with ards
Small tidal volume high rr
Ph goal ards
7.2
Breathing high percent of u2 with a block in left bronchus
Can lead to atelectasis
Atelectasis chest assessment
Increase tactile fremitus,dull note,crackle,bronchial sounds,whisperednpectoriloquy
Pft of atelectasis
Decreaase ic,decrease vc
Found in alveoli of ards pt
Debri,fibrin,hyaline membrane
Alveolar cells on prolonged ards pt
Hyperplasia and swelling of type 2 cells
Burns septicemia and hemorrhagic pancreatitis
Can lead to ards
Ards pt with alveolar consolidation and atelectasis should be treated with
Cpap,peep
Clinical manifestations of ards
Low or norm pul cap wedge pressure,tachycardia,intercostal retractions,cyanosis
Interstitial lung disease and asbestosis have
Pleural plaques,secretions,bronchospasm
Some Interstitial lung diseases
Asbestosis,sarcoidosis,silicosis
Interstitial lung disese can be caused by
Anticancer drugs
Interstitial lung disease sclerosis affects
Skin, lungs
High risk interstitial Lung disease sarcoidosis
African American women,20-30 age
Interstitial LNG disease chest assessment
Pleural friction rub,increased vocal fremitus
Coal workers interstitial lung disease aka
Pneumoconiosis,silicosis
Benign tumors
Grow slowly,are encapsulated
Malignant tumors
Invade surrounding tissues,cause necrosis
Structural damage in bronchogenic carcinoma
Airway obstruction,destruction of airways and alveoli,atelectasis
Non small cell cancer types
Lg cell,squamous,adenocarcinoma
Lobectmy
Removal of whole lobe
Best way to manage tu or in rt main bronchus during scope
Brachytherapy
Palliative care
Treat symptoms make comfy
Signs of metastatic cancer
Weakness,bone pain,seizures,wt loss