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Of what three cycels does respiratation consist?
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation make up what process?
Explain Respiration in relation to oxidation:
Complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 to get ATP is what process?
How does respiration break down glucose?
Energy is added directly thru ATP to destabilize the very stable glucose in what process?
Explain energy in relation to reactivity:
The higher the energy the more reactive and the lower the energy the less reactive pertains to what?
Glycolysis step 1:
What type of reaction is it?
From what molecule is what molecule transferred to what C?
What does this do to the new molecule?
How many ATPs are used?
Phosphorylation reaction with kinase transfers phosphate from 1 ATP to glucose producing PO4 on C six and giving it more energy
Glycolysis step 2 is what type of reaction?
What happens in this reaction?
What is the enzyme responsible for?
Isomerase reaction which transfers PO4 groups (already activated from step one)
Glucose becomes fructose: O on #1 C to #2 C in Fructose
Enzyme is responsible for changing the shape of the molecule by removing C from the ring.
Glycolysis Step 3 is what type of reaction with what type of enzyme?
What happens and what is significant?j
How many ATP are used?
Phosphorylation reaction with Kinase creates symmetry by adding a PO4 from 1 ATP to #1 and #6 Cs
Glycolysis Step 4 what happens to Fructose and with what enzyme?
What happens for the first time and why is this significant? What can no longer happen?
Aldolase enzyme splits 6 C sugar into two 3 C molecules each with a phosphate (Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (1) becomes Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (1))
1st time C-C bond is broken
1st Significant reaction because all C-C bonds must be broken to produce CO2
Rxn can no longer be reversed
Glycolysis Step 5 is what type of reaction and what is formed from what?
Isomerase reaction which forms a second glyceraldehyde by changing the molecule from C=O.
Glycolysis Step 6: NAD to NADH (+2) is what type of reaction?
What is the coenzyme?
What happens to NADH+
a redox rxn in which NAD is oxidized and NADH is reduced.
= e- carrier; the energy we're taking from glucose and adding to NAD=reduction
H = 1P + 1e-, so adding e- to p+ = H, e- is from glyceraldehyde
Later 2 NADH produces 3 ATPs each =g 6 ATP
Glycolysis Step 7:
what type of reaction and what is made for the first time? How many of these at this point?
1,3-Di-PO4-glyceric acid used to make
a PO4 from ADP is added in a Kinase Reaction
Only 2 ATP at this point
Where does lactic acid come from and what does it cause?
Muscles produce it when we are low on O2. It causes our muslces to become sore because it is toxic. Our body rids itself of it by converting it to Pyruvic acid.
why is lactic acid shown as a product of respiration?
Because it's always there, but it is a metabolic dead end.
Transition Step 1: What reaction occurs and how does molecule change? Where does it occur?
Redox rxn in which the Carboxcylic acid in pyruvic acid is oxidized in mitochondria and NAD is reduced in the mitochondria. (an aerobic classification)
Transition Step 2: What happens and why is this significant?
What is left and what is it composed of?
Removal of rest of carboxyl group in the form of CO2.
First time lose a carbon from the original glucose (actually two, one from each pyruvic acid)
Acetyl which is a cabonyl and a methyl group
Transition Step 3: What is formed and what does it carry?
What does the formation of this carry us into?
Formation of Acetyl COA. It carries acetyl groups which is bound to COA.
The krebs cycle
What can be made from the molecules of the early atmosphere?
organic molecules can be produced from the inorganic molecules
Why did life forms begin to use Aerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration produced 38 ATP while Anaerobic produced only 2.
Where does aerobic respiration occur in bacteria and in humans?
In bacteria occurs in cytoplasm, in humans it occurs in
What kind of atmosphere when life first forming and what kind of respiration?
No O2 so anaerobic respiration devoloped
what does transferring phosphate translate as or equal to?
It equals transferring energy because the higher the energy the more reactive
What receives the 2 C from the acetyl group and what is it?
The oxaloacetic acid, a citric acid like O.J. receives them, first molecule of krebs cycle
What is lost several steps down in krebs cycle? And then another step down/
a CO2 and then another CO2
What are the following reduced to? and what do they later produce in Krebs cycle, the order listed respectively?
NADPH and produces 3 ATPs later
NADH x 2 and produces 3 x 2 = 6 ATP
GTP and produces 1 ATP
FADH and produces 2 ATP
NADH and produces 3 ATP
for a total of 12 ATP
How many ATPs from each of the following molecules?
pyruvic acid = 15 x 2 = 30
glycolysis = 2
NADH = 6
Total = 38
What is occuring during oxidative phosphorylation and what is another name for it?
Electron transport chain (ETC) which is where co-enzymes make ATP by reducing them
In oxidative phosphorylation what happens to electrons?
they are transferred from one molecule to another
each time a molecule is transferred what happens to energy in oxidative phosphorylation
some energy is lost
what kind of reaction is step 1 of photosysnthesis? What other step in photosynthesis is also this type of reaction?
oxygenic, PS1 produces O2 also,
What does extra energy cause in step 2 photosynthesis?
Energy is used to raise e- to a higher level which causes it to be unstable because the more E the more unstable
Photosynthesis step 5
in PS1, e- are stabilized again by sending them thru ETC where they end up as NADPH
What kind of pathway is the one that adds CO2 to a 5 carbon sugar and what is its name?
Calvin Benson cycle which is a light independent pathway
What is RuBP and why is it the most common one on earth
a protein and because photosynthesis requires it.
what does RuBP break down into? what kind of rxn is it?
two 3 C molecules of glyceraldehyde 3 P which is an aldolase rxn
What is a problem for photosynthesis and why?
It requires CO2, which is needed for Calvin Benson cycle to break down RuBP
What molecules does Calvin Benson cycle use from the light dependent pathway?
The 38 ATP? to make glucose
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