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the local population would be consulted as to the form of their future government

Mandate system

Instead of colonizing the territories that are not yet able to stand by themselves, the advanced countries would administer their affairs until the time that they were ready to manage their own

Mandatory powers

UK, France, Japan, Belgium, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand

Category A Mandates

ex-Ottoman Arab territories on the brink of indpendence

Category B Mandates

Former German colonies in Africa-> guided away from slavery, labor exploitation, opened for trade

Category C mandates

South-West Africa and German islands in the pacific

E.A Northedge on Mandate System

"a device to solve a dilemma, namely, how could Allied Powers be allowed to keep their gains without affronting people"

Syria and Lebanon

French mandates until 1944

3 Oct 1918

British troops let Faisal enter Damascus, claim victory and liberate the city from ottoman control

1 Dec 1918

British PM, Lloyd George and French PM, Clemenceau met to review and amend the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
Agreed to redraw the boundaries according to their interests, negotiated shares in total disregard to prior wishes of local communities.

French policy of divide and rule

rendered the Syrians and the Lebanese more dependent on their presence.
Minority ruled

Christian Maronites

living in Mount Lebanon, close ties with the French, 30% of population, dominated politically Lebanon
-> Majority of Muslim population were unhappy


minority Muslim sect in Western Syria and Northern Lebanon, describe themselves as Sh'ia Islam.


Minority Muslin group in Southern Syria, Central Lebanon and Northern Israel who describe themsleves as unitarian Muslims.

Political life in Syria

Dominated by Sunni Muslims, isolating Druze and the Alawites

Revolt in July 1925

Revolt broke out in the Druze region led by Sultan Atrash. Succeeded at first in forcing the French out of the region. later became nationwide.
-> Spring 1927, suppressed


the number of Syrians killed in the July revolt

National Bloc

a Syrian political organization established from the July revolt in 1925

Iraq in 1920

3 separate states: Mosul, Basra, and Baghdad

Kurdish minority of Mosul

brought under the hegemony of teh Arabs, denied minority rights by the Arab majority.

Sunnis in Iraq

Minority, ruled Iraq, backed up by the British.
-> dissatisfaction among the Shi'as.
-> still continues to this day

Revolt in May 1920

the first rebellion against the British rose among the tribes of the Euphrates.
Killed 10,000 Iraqis and 450 British
-> longterm solution: hand over responsibility to Arab ruler, with whom they would sign a treaty that safeguard British economic and strategic interests in the country.


Crowned as the King of Iraq, closely supervised and aided by the British.

Empire by Treaty


Case of Transjordan

divide the mandate along the river Jordan and thus form Palestine to the west of teh River
-> comply with the Balfor, to the East, Abdullah established an independent Arab state
-> fulfilled both promises

Kurdish rebellion

death of 25,000 kurds

10 out of 23 seats

the 1922 constitution: a legislative council of Palestinians, Jews, Christians and the British was proposed.
Number of seats the Arabs were given even though they were 90% of the population.

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