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Bio chapter 20-25

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A physiologist is a biologistis who studies
The function of bodyParts
An organ system consists of
Organs that collectively perform a vital body function
Which of the following is an example of a tissue
Heart muscle
Stratified squamous epithelium is well suited for
Lining body surfaces subject to abrasion
Which of the following items has a shape most like a squamous epithelial cell
A fried egg
The liquid part of the blood that consists of water, salts, and dissolved Proteins is know as
Plasma
Which of the following is a type of connective tissue
Adipose tissue
Connective tissue is different from the other major tissues in that
The cells are sparsely scattered through nonliving matrix
Smooth muscle is responsible for
Involuntary body activities
Which of the following statements regarding skeletal muscle is true
Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by tendons
Unlike both smooth and skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle
Has branched cells
Which type of tissues forms a communication and coordination system within the body
Nervous
The structural and functional unit of nervous tissues is the
Neuron
Which of the following tissues would likely be found in the small intestine
Cardiac muscle
Based on your understanding of homeostasis, for negative feedback control of blood glucose levels to function properly
There must be sensors that monitor blood glucose levels
If haven't eaten for several days which hormone would be responsible for returning your glucose levels to the set point
Glucagon
The respiratory system includes all of the following structures expect the
Esophagus
Which organ system removes nitrogen containing watse products from blood
Excretory system
Fingernails are a component of the______ system
Integumentary
Which of the following is a part of the immune system
Bone Marrow
Which of the following imaging techniques is best suited for visualizing fine anatomic detail in the brain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Which of the following imaging techniques is best suited for visualizing areas of high or low metabolic activity
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Assume you have scratched a mosquito bite and in the process damaged some of your stratified squamous epithelial cells. What will happen
The cells near the base of the epithelium replicate to replace the damaged cells
Which of the following best represents an adaption to increase Surface to volume ratio
The multi lobed sacs of an earthworm
Cells receive material such as food, minerals, and oxygen from the outside world through
Interstitial fluid
Imagine an invertebrate that lives in an estuary where salinity varies cyclically with the tides. If this individual is able to adjust the salt concentration of it's body fluids, it's salt concentration will have
Slight functions that are kept within a narrow range
The vertebrate kidney helps to keep the acidity of the body fluids constant by varying the amount of hydrogen ions it secretes into the urine. You can confidently predict that this aspect of kidney function will be controlled by
A negative feedback mechanism
When body temperature is too high which of the following occurs
Blood vessels in the skin dilate
Digestion is the
Chemical and mechanical breakdown of food for absorption into the body
What happens to nutrient macromolecules in an animals digestive tract
Nutrient macromolecules are digested into monomers before absorption
Through digestion carbohydrates are broken down into
Monosaccharides
Which of the following choices lists the organs of the bird digestive system In the correct order from first to last contact with food material
Esophagus, crop, stomach, gizzard, intestine, anus
Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last contact with food matter
Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is to
Obtain energy from their food
In the final phase of respiration body cells
Release co2 and take up o2
Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must
Have a high ratio of body surface area to volume
Which of the following statements regarding breathing and circulation is false
The circulatory system of insects is not involved in transporting oxygen
Which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to it's overall body size
Bear
Which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the body
Alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx
Why do cigarette smokers cough more than nonsmokers
Cigarette smoker hames the cilia that normally move debris out of the lungs and coughing is the remaining way to clean the lungs
When you are breathing normally exhalation results mainly from
The relaxation of the chest muscles and diaphragm
When you hold your breath which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again
Rising carbon dioxide concentration
Which of the following contributes to gas exchange in the human fetus
High oxygen levels maintained in the amniotic fluid by the placenta
Which of the following statements regarding circulatory systems is trye
A circulatory system is necessary in any animal whose body is too large or too complex for vital chemicals to reach all parts of the body by diffusion
Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system
Transporting nutrients to body cells
Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers
Salmon
Which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false
The left side of a mammals heart sends blood to the lungs
In mammals blood returning from the head will pass through the _____ just before entering the right atrium
Superior vena cava
The largest blood vessel in the human body is the
Aorta
During ventricular systole the _____ valves ______
Semilunar.... Open
The location of the hearts pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle is called
Sinoatrial node
The main function of the AV node is to
Relay a signal for the ventricles to contact
Myocardial infarction also called a heart attack
Results from the death of cardiac cells
Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls
Capillaries
Blood flow through capillaries is controlled by
Precapillary sphincters
Which of the following cells are phagocytes
Monocytes and neutrophils
What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid
Capillary
How long do human red blood cells circulate in the blood before they wear out and have to be replaced
3-4 months
Blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein
Fibrinogen
Multipotent stem cells
Can differentiate into all blood cells and platelets
The epstein-Barr virus causes the symptoms of mononucleosis by
Infecting B cells and weakening the immune system
The bodys innate defense against infection include
Barriers such as dead skin cells and mucus
Which of the following wander through the interstitial fluid eating any bacteria and virus infected cells they encounter
Macrophages
What substance produced by virus infected cells diffused to neighboring cells to help them fight a viral infection
Interferon
When you cut yourself the damaged cells immediately release chemical alarm signals such as
Histamine
The major result of the inflammatory response is to
Initiate cell-mediated immune responses
The two main functions of the lymphatic are
Returning tissue fluid to the circulatory system and fighting infections
A substance that can elicit an immune response is called
An antigen
Antibodies are
Proteins
One kind of vaccine consists of
Horse erythrocytes
Which of the following cell types is responsible for humoral immunity
B cells
Which of the following statements about humoral immunity is true
Humoral immunity plays a major role in protecting the body from cancerous cells
Which of the following cell types is responsible for cell mediated immunity
B cells
The immune system is capable of mounting specific responses to particular microorganisms because
The Body contains an enormous diversity of lymphocytes, each with the ability to respond to a different antigen
When a B cell first interacts with it's particular antigen, the B cell
Differentiates and develops into a clone of antibody producing cells
Which of the following choices best describes a plasma cell
It is a differentiated B cell
The secondary immune response occurs when memory cells bind to
Antigens